Evergreen academic and professional careers in the field of commerce, accountancy, costing and finance. It is one of the most stable professional field. No business activities can be carried out without accountancy and is required by the statutory regulations by the Governments, both central and states for various business requirements like financial reports and statements.

Personality Traits

Patience, hard work , dedication to the profession, numerical abilities, monetary transactions, analysation capacities, comparative blent of mind, cluster of creativity with statutory requirements, pre planning capacity, ability to follow up a speedy action, timely decision making skills followed by proper feed back, constant touch with the latest legal news, acts, amendments, repealments, removals and additions, continuous contacts with respective professional bodies, institutes or organisations, keeping in touch with the latest business and industrial magazines, web sites, reference with seniors in the same professional field etc.

Standard certificates/degrees/PGs/Professional memberships

1. Academic Courses

·        After Xth, 2 years for +2 with MEC / CEC

·        After +2, 3 years for B.Com / B.Com (Computers) / B.Com (Hons.)

·        After B.Com, 2 years for M.Com, MBA (Finance), Master of Financial Management MFM, Master of Bank Management MBM, M.Com Cooperative Management, MA Corporate Secretaryship Course, Master of Financial Controller MFC, Master of Financial Analyst MFA, MA (Commerce)

·        After post graduation - Research works as M.Phil, Ph.D from Universities or Fellowship programmes from Institutes like IIMs, IIFTs, IITs, IISc etc.

Almost all Universities in India are offering these courses on a regular / distance mode / correspondence / under open university systems.  

The duration is Xstd.+2+3+2 years. 

One can join the profession of Teacher, Accountant, Accounts Officer, Manager, Financial Advisor, Fianancial Controller.

2. Professional Courses 

Chartered Accountant

Cost & Work Accountant

Company Secretary

Chartered Financial Analysist CFA

Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India, ICFAI, Hyderabad

Eligibility: Any degree with 2nd class (preference will be given to commerce students) 
Duration: minimum 3 years,
System of course: correspondence, oral classes and training
Admission procedure: Direct admission for graduates

Certified Public Accountant CPA

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, AICPA 
Eligibility: Any degree with 2nd class (preference will be given to commerce students)
Duration: 3 years minimum
System of course: correspondence, oral coaching and contact classes
Admission procedure: Direct admission for graduates




Banking in India has come a full circle from the time when you had to wait in a queue to collect cash to getting it delivered at your doorstep at no extra cost. Add to that services like phone banking, Internet banking, 24 hour ATM, draft delivery at home, etc. and you have service spelt with a capital.

Though the contemporary banks' services have changed a lot over the last few years, the core function has remained the same. Banks handle deposits and withdrawal of money, provide loans, pay a part of the surplus as interest and the rest is kept back for the smooth functioning of the bank and profit making.

A banks' functions can be divided into various divisions like:

Retail/Personal Banking: This division provides a range of financial services to individual customers and small companies. It operates mainly through branch networks.
Retail banking includes routine transactions like deposits and withdrawals of money; money transfer; foreign currency exchange and traveller's cheque encashment. They also deal with personal and small loans, credit and mortgages; insurance policies; investment schemes; pension funds; and advice to customers on various financial matters. Apart from offering home loans, car loans, educational loans, consumer loans, etc. they also develop various deposit schemes and help people fill their coffers.

Corporate Banking: They deal with medium to large-scale companies and government agencies. It could start at the local branch manager level, though more complex dealings are routed through corporate divisions of clearing banks and their merchant banking subsidiaries. Corporate banking deals with credit and advances, trade finance, foreign exchange management, asset management, lease financing of heavy equipment, infrastructure, machinery, credit risk assessment, etc. They also advise clients on matters such as corporate mergers and acquisition, raising capital and business strategy regarding competitors and outside factors.

Merchant Banking: Investment management is the primary activity of this group. It could be on behalf of corporate clients, or institutional investors-like pension funds, investment trusts, or those in the securities business. This groups also handles public issue and marketing of shares, debentures and other such papers. It may also include other stock market functions like dematerialisation services, investment advisory services, etc. Merchant banking executives research into capital market, advise and manage funds of various corporate and individual customers.

Treasury group: This group takes care of the total funds of a bank including foreign exchange reserves. Responsibilities include bank portfolio management, dealing in foreign currency, etc. There are Forex (foreign exchange) dealers in this group who exclusively deal with the foreign market. They buy and sell foreign exchange at the minimum exchange cost thereby earning maximum profit from the transactions.
Rural Banking: This group deals with the banking and credit needs of people in the rural sector. Not all banks have this group and some banks have separate subsidiary companies for rural banking.
Product Management: This group conceptualises various banking services and then develops, implements and manages them. They have the responsibility for a banking product (meaning services like personal loans, home loans, cre dit cards, loans against shares, educational loans, etc.)

Apart from these main functional groups, there is an appraisal group to analyse economic feasibility of industrial projects, the bank's exposure to financial risk and long term returns. There are internal auditors who audit the bank's internal books of accounts.

There are various groups of professionals like lawyers, engineers, agricultural scientists and economists who work in various departments in advisory capacities. They help make decisions on issues that are legal, technical or economic in nature. For example, the economist advises various functional groups on the implications of the Union budget on the business of the banks, consumer buying pattern, etc.

The term 10 to 5 no more holds true for bankers. This is mainly true for the officers. There is constant pressure to perform well. Typically, in a private sector bank and in public sector banks (like State Bank of India), you may join in as an Assistant/Clerk or as a Trainee Manager/Probationary Officer. As a Trainee Manager or a Probationary Officer, you will be rotated through different functions for the initial four years.

Once you have completed a series of management/officer level postings, your progress and performance will be reviewed and you will be assigned as a Branch Manager in any town or city.
In some banks when you join as a management trainee, you are generally trained in all aspects of banking for the initial two years. Then, you are assigned the responsibilities of an Assistant Manager in a particular functional group or you become a Branch Manager.
After 2-3 years of experience, you are given independent charge of a product of a functional group. Another 3-4 years of experience may see you as the head of a functional group.


* Analytical and reasoning skills

* Good mathematical abilities

* Meticulous

* Excellent communication skills

* An attitude to serve people and a pleasing personality

* Strong leadership abilities and organising skills

* Ability to take initiatives

* Ability to work in a group

* Always open to learning-new skills, new methodologies, and so on.

You need to be a graduate in any stream to get into a nationalised bank as a Probationary Officer. But to qualify as an Assistant/Clerk you need to have completed your 10+2.

However, MBAs are preferred in almost all the managerial positions in a bank. Private banks generally recruit their managerial staff from top business schools across India.

Professionals like Chartered Accountants, Agricultural Scientists and Engineers are also taken in as management trainees/officers. Other professionals who find positions in banks are M. Sc./Ph. D in Economics, Lawyers, Statisticians, Company Secretaries and Information Technologists (i.e. those with an MCA/B.Tech in Computer Science or equivalent).

For entry in the clerical/assistant level, private banks have a minimum educational requirement of graduation. You stand a better chance if you have additional qualifications in computers, marketing management or any secretarial course.
Senior professionals in Marketing, Human Resource Development, Information Technology as well as those from financial services companies also find opportunities in banks.

Job Opportunities

In various private sector banks like HDFC Bank, IDBI Bank, ICICI Bank, Centurion Bank, UTI Bank, etc.

In various multi national banks like Citibank, American Express Bank, ABN-AMRO Bank, Standard & Chartered Bank, etc.
You will find opportunities in public sector and nationalised banks like the State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Allahabad Bank, Bank of Maharashtra, Central Bank of India, Canara Bank, etc.

You can find work in various co-operative banks like Bharat Co-operative Bank, Saraswat Bank, etc.

In the public sector you can even work for speciality banks like the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Gramin Banks, Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India, etc.

You can also work in regulatory banking authorities like Reserve Bank of India and its regional branches.

Money & Other Benefits

A Management Trainee in a public or private sector bank: Rs 2.4-5 lakh or more p.a.

Officer Trainee/Probationary Officer: Rs 1,00,000-1,20,000 p.a (gross salary in a public sector bank). Plus, this job offers annual increments and all the perks that go along with bank jobs-casual leave, privilege leave, sick leave… the list just goes on and on and on!

Officer trainees in private or multinational bank: Rs 1,44,000-1,60,000 or more p.a

Senior Executives in a private sector or multinational bank: Rs 12-24 lakh or more p.a. If you perform well it will take you about 7-10 years to reach this level. Even at the middle level, you can expect to get about Rs 6-9 lakh p.a in a private sector or multinational banks.

Senior Managers in public sector banks: Rs 30,000-Rs 50,000 a month.

That's not all. You could also opt for an outstation transfer once you reach the officer level. And your pay-cheque will get fatter and fatter. Thinking four-figure? Think bigger!

Clerks: Rs 6,000-8,500 (isn't bad, considering that you are entitled to all the perks that an officer is entitled to). So, are you game to make good money for eight hours of work with loads of paid leaves including maternal leave and paternal leave?


Career Prospects

Commercial banking is a cyclic business - when the economy does well, so do bankers. But the last few years have seen a very healthy growth in the banking industry. The leading banks in the public sector, almost all the private sector banks and the foreign banks have seen their net profit grows by about 60 per cent. This shows that the banking industry is definitely on an upswing.

This trend becomes apparent when one considers the indicators of growth and changes in the environment. For example, the Central Government is planning to reduce their share in banks from the current 51 per cent to 33 per cent. The private sector banks are growing aggressively. The multinational banks are entering into the personal banking business targetting small customers.

Though the growth in net profits do not always lead to a growth in manpower, the number of managerial level staff as well as professionals is increasing. In fact, though the total manpower employment figure shows a negative growth of about 0.2 per cent there is definitely a growing need for MBAs and other professionals.
Apart from the traditional banking jobs, other jobs in banks are increasing. For instance, as the banks are leaning towards sophisticated technology there is a growing need for information technology professionals.
It is true that there are more opportunities in the officer cadre than in clerical cadre. In fact, the recruitment at the clerical/assistant levels is negative. Most of the public sector banks are reducing their manpower recruitment in the clerical jobs. But overall, as banking is a growing industry, the job prospects are good.
There is one final reason to feel enthusiastic about a banking career. Many of the services are now available at your fingertips. It's a result of the rapid changes in the banking functions and redefinition of the concept of banking as a whole. These will definitely lead to rapid changes in careers in banking and generally pull the industry upward.


Chartered Accountant

Join Institute of Chartered accountants of India (ICAI), for specialisation in financial accountancy and taxation after Graduation or +2. After +2 students are required to pass foundation examination being conducted by the Institute.  

About the Institute

Institute of Chartered accountants of India (ICAI), Indhraprastha Marg, NEW DELHI - 110002

Started in 1949 through Special parliamentary act.

Designation after completion  of course

Associate member of ICAI (ACA)

After completion of 5 practising years Fellow member of ICAI(FCA)


The process of money flow is a complicated one. You will master it and show others how to do it. As a CA you will offer financial advice and audit accounts for private individuals, companies, industries, educational institutions, etc. This in short is the summation of your job profile.

You will audit-analyse and verify your clients' accounts and give a fair financial picture. You could also work as a financial guide or consultant and push an organisation's profitability. You will also advice clients on investments, general taxation and act as executors and trustees.

Auditing means analysing and verifying a client's accounts to make sure that they give a fair financial picture. It also involves interviewing staff and management. Most companies hire CAs as financial guides or consultants.

Budgeting, fund raising and other financial activities related to corporate finance will be your domain. CAs are experts in corporate law.

Procuring finance for projects needs high level of skills and expertise in finance. CAs are trained to advice on financial sources and prepare project reports.

You will analyse the profitability on business expansion as well as its long term returns. Your advice will also be sought in matters such as mergers and acquisition, diversification etc.

This profession calls for a lot of travelling. So if you hate to pick your bag and leave the comforts of your office, think twice. Auditing will see you move from one office to another, unless you have your own practice.


You have to complete the course conducted by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI).
According to the new system in place you are first required to do your Professional Education (PE) course I and II. For PE-I you need to have completed your 10+2 level in any stream. The course is administered via correspondence for a period of 10 months after which you give a written exam. The subjects include accounting, mathematics and statistics, accounting, as well as business communication and management.

After this you are eligible for PE - II. You can directly join PE -II if you have completed your B.Com with Accountancy, Auditing and Mercantile or Commercial Law with a minimum of 50 per cent marks. For non-commerce students with mathematics the cut off percentage is 60 per cent and for other non-commerce students it is 55 per cent. If you fall below these academic requirements, you need to do the PE-I course first.

Candidates who have cleared the final exams conducted by the Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI) or the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) can also join the PE - II course directly. Subjects in PE-II include Cost Accounting and Financial Management, Business and Corporate Laws and Information Technology.

In both PE-I and II you need to score at least 40 per cent in each individual paper and 50 per cent overall in order to pass the examination. The duration of each of these courses is 10 months. After this you are required to register yourself as articled clerks and work as a trainee under a chartered accountant for a period of three years. During the last six months of this internship you can appear for the CA Final examination. On clearing the final examination and completion of your three-year internship programme, you are required to complete a course on general management and communication skills. After all this has been done will you be admitted as an associate member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Only then can you call yourself a Chartered accountant.
These days more and more CA firms are IT enabled and as such you need to be knowledgeable about things like:

1. Working knowledge of Tally and Spreadsheets

2. E-commerce

3. Internet Applications

4. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

5. Software Solutions

6. DBMS and RDBMS Concepts

Job Opportunities

You will work with:

You could also freelance or start your own consultancy service.

Money & Other Benefits

Registered firms: Rs 5,000-20,000 or more per month
Chartered accountancy firms: Rs 6,000-20,000 or more per month
Management consultancy firm: Rs 15,000-40,000 or more per month
Banks: Rs 12,000-Rs 30,000 or more per month
Other organisations: Rs 10,000-30,000 per month

Career Prospects

In recent times, accountancy has grown in popularity as a profession. The services of a CA are required even in the smallest of enterprises.

Moreover, under the Companies Act, only CAs in professional practice are entitled for appointment as auditors of companies in India.

With growing globalisation and formation of new policies, the corporate sector requires the services of more specialised professionals.

There is also a demand for consultancy service on specific issues to a business enterprises.



Cost & Work Accountant

Join Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI) for Cost and Management accountancy after Graduation or +2. After +2 students are required to pass foundation examination being conducted by the Institute.  

About the Institute

Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI) 

12,sudder street, CALCUTTA-700016

Started in 1959 through Special parliamentary act.

Papers In Foundation Course  

Business fundamentals & Economics, Management & organisation, Basic mathematics & statistics, Commercial Laws. Exams in the Months of June and December. Graduates with minimum 2nd class are exempted from the foundation examination.

The actual course consists of two levels: Intermediate and Final both divided into two groups / stages.

Papers in Intermediate Examination

Stage / Group-1: Financial Accounting, Cost Accounting, Corporate laws and secretarial practice, Direct taxation. Exams in the Months of June and December.

Stage / Group-2: Cost and Management accounting, Auditing, Indirect taxation, Quantitative methods. Exams in the Months of June and December.

Paper in the Final Examination

Stage / Group-3: Advanced financial accounting, Information technology and computer applications, Operations management & control, Project management & control. Exams in the Months of June and December.

Stage / Group-4: Advanced Management Accounting Techniques and Applications, Advanced financial management, Advanced Management Accounting-Strategic management, Cost Audit. Exams in the Months of June and December.

Pass Requirements

Minimum of 40% and an aggregate of 50% in that particular stage / group.

Designation after completion

Associate member of ICWAI(AICWAI)  

After completion of 5 practising years Fellow member of ICWAI (FICWAI)

Duration of the course

Minimum 3 years.

Coaching facilities

Oral, postal, regular coaching facilities at various regional centres.

Placements and Counseling cells
Placement and counselling cell for the best placements of its members.


Equity Research Analyst

In market research you have to evaluate factors influencing investment like currency market positions, inflation rates and others. You have to understand the dynamics and markets to track all the relevant players, from the industry giants to new enterprises in the market.

Your work serves as a barometer for the corporates and the investors. You have to assess the value of the company and advise the company on profit making moves after studying the market. You will also review the future earning potential of the company. In a way you are also keeping a check on the management decisions of the company.

You will start off as an Junior Equity Analyst and then climb the higher rung of Equity Analyst, Senior Equity Analyst, Head of Research, Regional Fund Manager and finally the Global Fund Manager.

To be a successful Equity Research Analyst you need to have access to right information at the right time. You should also be able to foretell the market moves. Therefore, it becomes necessary for you to constantly upgrade yourself with the latest happenings in the market. Computer skills and being net savvy helps as it gives you easier access to information.

The job is very interesting and you are at the higher end of the learning curve. The pay pack is also impressive but you would be spending most of your time at work. This is a place for workaholics.


As an equity research analyst you need to have the following personality traits:
· Analytical thinking
· Ability to understand and evaluate
· Ability to forecast
· Good communication skills
· Convincing power
· Conviction
· Technology and net savvy
· Aware of the latest happenings in the field

If you have an MBA in Finance, or you are a Chartered Accountant or Chartered Financial Analyst then you qualify for the post of an Equity Research Analyst. Other accepted qualifications include Master of Business Finance and Master of Finance & Control.

You could also pursue the postgraduate diploma course in Equity Research and Analysis offered by The Institute of Chartered Financial Analyst of India at Hyderabad.

Job Opportunities

You would find employment with:

Money & Other Benefits

You'll never regret choosing this career considering the money. But you would hardly get time to socialise. In this high-pressure job money comes as another incentive to work on.

Junior Analysts earn around Rs 3-8 lakh p.a.

With 5-6 years experience you could earn Rs 12 lakh to 1 crore p.a depending on the organisation and the post offered.

The MNCs offer more moolah than the domestic ones. But it's not easy money. You have to slog for it. You have to be exceptionally good in your job.

Career Prospects

Capital markets all over the world as well as in India are witnessing major changes. With escalating interests of domestic and international players in India, there is an increasing demand for a more systematic approach. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is also trying to bring transparency in the dealings. All this has opened a lot of avenues for people planning their career as an Equity Research Analyst.

Economic growth and liberalisation has opened a number of opportunities in various fields like mutual funds, investment consultancy, broker firms, insurance companies, merchant banks, pension funds and other financial institutions.


Forex Dealer

Forex literally means dealing with the financial aspects of the currency and stock market. You'll be working either as a Corporate or Currency Dealer.

Corporate dealer quote merchant based rates like one related to export and imports or customer related. You have to workout the rates of various foreign currencies, study the market reports and get a firm view of the market. You have to plan strategies for the day with the Chief Dealer, note down the currency wise opening positions in the daily position sheets. Position sheets are charts stating the exchange rates of various currencies in the markets all over the world in the beginning of a day.

Your job also includes quoting merchant transactions keeping in mind the profit factor, make transactions over the internet, talk to corporate clients, write inter-bank deals and tally deals with the backup department.

Currency traders are involved in speculative deals in the currency markets all over the world. Your job requires you to study market, analyse currency movement in the Asian as well as international market. You will also be involved in technical analysis using graphs and charts like candle chart, line and bar chart. You have to buy and sell currencies in international market quoting your own prices on the basis of New York and Tokyo market review.

You need to have good knowledge of currency and stock market to cater to the clients' needs and profit margins. You will also have to take into consideration the banks' working profit margin before finalising a deal.
Generally, there are two-three trading positions followed:

In forex dealing, you will start as a Junior Forex dealer and then graduate to becoming a Senior Forex Dealer. Then, after being promoted as a chief dealer you will have to train your juniors to quote the market proceedings. You have to handle press, corporate brokers, inter bank dealers. It will also be your duty to guide and brief the management about the market happenings and routine dealings. The highest rank you can attain as a dealer is that of treasury head.

You will be hard pressed at work though the remuneration is high. There are no fixed timings and you would end up working almost 12-13 hours or more a day. Also included are the risks while dealing, which could make or break your career. You will hardly have anytime to socialise other than with your corporate clients. Performance is what matters most, which includes your speed of quoting and maintaining your customer database.


Generally any bank officer is inducted in the dealing room after undergoing training programme of Bourse or Foreign Exchange Bourse conducted by RBI's Bankers Training College.

Some large Nationalised banks like Bank of India have their own in-house Bourse training programme. This training programme is usually for three-four weeks, involving mock dealings.

The other traits that you would require to qualify as a Forex dealer are:

There are age restrictions in the sense young people are preferred keeping in mind the risk taking capacity.

The minimum educational qualification is graduation in any field with interest in stock market. Nowadays, preference is given to MBAs with specialisation in Finance and CAs could also apply.

Job Opportunities

Performance is the key to success in this field. You will find employment with

Money & Other Benefits

The pay scale is good in this field. To start off as a junior dealer you would earn around 10-12000 a month depending on the organisation you are working with.

If you are from premier institutes like IIMs, working with multinationals then you could expect around Rs 40,000 - 60,000 to begin with.

Depending on your experience, performance and the organisation you are working with, you could earn around 3-45 lakh p.a.

Career Prospects

Capital markets all over the world as well as in India are witnessing major changes. With escalating interests of domestic and international players in India there is increasing demand for a more systematic approach. SEBI is also trying to bring transparency in the dealings.

Economic growth and liberalisation has opened number of opportunities in various organisations like mutual funds, investment consultancy, broker firms, insurance companies, merchant banks, pension funds and other financial institutions.

The demand for forex dealer is inversely proportional to the market conditions.


Investment Banker

An investment banker deals with corporate houses. They manage shares and capital formation of a company. They also manage capital market operations on behalf of the company. Investment banking operations mainly revolve around investment management on behalf of corporate clients.

Career Overview

Your work would involve advising companies on capital formation, mergers, acquisitions, investments and managing capital assets. You will have to liaison with businesses, governments, nonprofit institutions and individuals.

You will look into the financial aspects like advising a company or a client on financial transaction, selling and trading the securities, researching the company's background and the market before making any investments, etc. You also have to analyse and make recommendations to the company, based on the market and competitors.

Your job will also involve extensive research on industries and companies. You will have to find out opportunities to invest in profitable shares, debentures and other financial instruments. You will also invest and control the portfolio of shares, decide which shares to buy and which to sell to gain maximum returns.

You have to excel and be accurate in terms of business information as the investor will totally depends on your reports. You have an important role to perform for the company. Yours is a high-risk job. You will have to face the criticism and failure at times.

Initially, you will join as an Analyst. You will be responsible for writing reports, maintaining spreadsheets, trading stock options, research, etc. You will have to put in long hours at work to get the projects completed on time.
You need to have a good knowledge of the business world and the latest market developments. Team spirit is the key to climb up the ladder, as you have to work in harmony with people of different temperaments.

Having a good network will help you get more business as well as earn more rewards. As you graduate to higher levels like that of Director, Managing Director and others the risk is higher. You will be evaluated on the basis of your performance.


As an investment banker you need to have:

Your success mainly depends upon your ability to communicate, willingness to travel, hard work and the number of profitable deals you clinch for the company.

A Degree in MBA with specialisation in Finance or Chartered Accountancy is preferred. Ph.D in Economics and relevant experience in the industry can also get you a good job.

Job Opportunities

You will find employment with:

Money & Other Benefits

This job is highly rewarding, as far as the money aspect is concerned. Junior Manager gets Rs 3-4 lakh p.a. The high end is actually a dollar salary converted into Indian rupees. Average package paid to MBAs from premier business schools is around Rs 9 lakh p.a.

With 5-6 years experience you could earn Rs 12 lakh - 1 crore p.a., depending on the organisation and the position you would be working in.

Career Prospects

Capital markets all over the world as well as in India are witnessing major changes. With escalating interests of domestic and international players in India there is an increasing demand for a more systematic approach in investments made in the capital market.

SEBI (Stock Exchange Board of India) is also bringing in mandatory transparency in the dealings. All this has opened lot of avenues for people planning a career in financial sectors.

Economic growth and liberalisation has opened up considerably large number of opportunities in various organisations like mutual funds, investment consultancy, broker firms, insurance companies, merchant banks, pension funds and other financial institutions.



Stock Broker

Of course not everyone can become a registered stockbroker. Why? Simply because it's quite expensive. If you can cough up an exchange fee of Rs 2.41 crore you can procure a broking card. That's not all. You have to shell out another Rs 20-25 lakhs to get registered with SEBI. But, that shouldn't deter you from becoming a stockbroker. You can always work as a dealer or an agent with a stockbroking firm. The stock exchange is exposed to a high degree of volatility. Prices fluctuate within minutes and are determined by demand and supply of stocks at a given time. Stockbrokers buy and sell securities on behalf of individuals and institutions for some commission. As a stockbroker you could get into private practice or work for institutions. Those who work with institutional investors are also called Securities Traders. You could work as a dealer, advisor or securities analyst. Security analysts use their sound knowledge of capital markets to advice companies on floating shares. You could even research, analyse market conditions and draw profit margins on behalf of your client. You have to simply stock market terms and trading practices for your client, offer financial counselling and also devise financial portfolios. This portfolio also includes securities, life insurance, corporate and municipal bonds, mutual funds, certificates of deposit and other investments. You also offer advice on the purchase or sale of securities. Back office (administration) forms the backbone of the business. Work is not as fast-paced and exciting as a dealer's. It involves keeping track of the procedural aspects after a deal is executed. The nitty-gritty of the business, like handling pay-in and payout forms a part of the job.

Your job as a dealer involves contacting clients and executing the deal that has been closed. You should be good at sourcing information. Buying and selling involves convincing clients to buy or sell shares to a client, a big organisation or retail investor. You need to be constantly updated about market conditions. Computer literacy is an added advantage with most of the dealings being computerised.

Stockbrokers also research and analyse various sectors, industries including the price of a share - whether it is under-priced or overpriced. You should be open to criticism and willing to accept failures when you are an analyst. Late hours, stress and tension go hand in hand with the job.

There is very little room for boredom or stagnation in this field. No matter which department you are in, a thorough knowledge of the various sectors and industries, gives you an edge in the business.

Since the industry is performance driven you got to be on your toes all the time to keep pace with the market movements. Stress levels are very high and since money attracts all sorts of people, one has to develop a certain amount of insensitivity.


* Strong desire to succeed
* Good sales ability
* Good communication skills
* Knack to convince people
* Knowledge of market and investment products
* Ability to listen to clients
* Understanding clients needs
* Build customer base
* Sharp memory
* Analytical mind
* Foresight and logical approach to make projections
* Ability to withstand mental stress and handle complex situations
* Head for numbers
* Patience
* Interest in market proceedings

Minimum requirement is graduation in any discipline preferably Commerce. It is essential for you to have thorough knowledge of economic conditions and market trends.

Some big broking firms prefer MBAs with specialisation in Finance or CAs. To be a member of the stock exchange you have to undergo training with a broking firm for a minimum period of six months. Training aims to impart knowledge of accountancy, law related subjects, capital markets, securities, portfolio analysis, etc.

Job Opportunities

* Business houses
* Broking firms
* Investments banks as well as traditional banks, which have business with broking firms

You could also prepare market report and analysis for magazines and newspapers.

Money & Other Benefits

Most brokering firms pay performance-based commissions along with the salary. Beginners get Rs 10000-25,000 plus commission. With experience you could earn around Rs 20 -30 lakh p.a.

Career Prospects

Capital markets all over the world are witnessing major changes. With escalating interests of domestic and international players in India there is an increasing demand for a more systematic approach. SEBI is also trying to bring transparency in the dealings.

Economic growth and liberalisation has opened number of opportunities in various organisations like mutual funds, investment consultancy, broker firms, insurance companies, merchant banks, pension funds and other financial institutions. Foreign institutional investors, mutual funds and even individuals have once again started posing confidence in the capital markets. This has enhanced prospects for brokers, investment and equity analysts. They can also start their own consultancies. Stock exchanges to some extent play an important role as indicators, reflecting the performance of the country's economic state of health.



Venture Capitalist

Do you want to fund the dreams of young entrepreneurs? Ever thought of playing angel to a great business idea? Do you have the ability to analyse a good business opportunity among scores of others? Then what are you waiting for? Come, become a Venture Capitalist.

Career Overview

Hold on. We are not talking of KBC, which will make you a corepati overnight. A Venture Capitalist does not give away his or someone else's money. You will be working for a Venture capitalist firm.

These firms have two principal functions. Firstly, they raise money from various wealthy individuals, corporate organisations, financial institutions like banks and other sources like non-profit funds to build up a corpus fund. Secondly, this fund is utilised by the firms to finance start-up organisations.

The start-up organisations are generally in a very innovative business field. Or, many of such start-up organisations come up with very innovative ideas in an existing business field or industry. Venture capital firms generally finance newer businesses. For examples, dotcoms, biotechnology firms and the likes.

As a venture capitalist, your main job will be to analyse the venture proposals submitted by entrepreneurs. The proposal, which comes to you as a business plan has:

* Description of the product or service that the business intends to make and deliver
* Market needs and how the product or service proposes to fulfill the need
* Details of how the product will be produced and delivered
* Manpower and systems needed by the business
* How the business will be established over a period of time
* Cost to establish the business
* Sales and profits that the business will generate over a period of time
* Profitability and long-term viability of the business

As a venture capitalist, your first job will be to analyse different aspects of the business plan such as:

* Whether there is really a need for the venture in the market

* Production and delivery process
* The financial and commercial feasibility of the business
After the preliminary analysis you will have to seek clarification from the entrepreneur about various aspects of the business. You will ask for a presentation and discuss a number of issues regarding the viability of the business. You will also look into the educational and professional background of the venture capitalist, the profile of the management team that will establish the business and the ability of the entrepreneur to attract and retain talented people in the team.

If you are satisfied with the business's viability and the ability of the management, you will also plan out how you will give them the money and analyse what will be your firm's return on the money. Generally, a venture capital firm gives the money in the form of equity. The firm becomes an investor in the equity of the company.

That means the firm will become a joint owner of the company in which they are investing money. Of course, the firm does not become a life long owner. It generally exits from the business at an opportune time.

Your aim will be to earn maximum possible return on the money you invest in the business. You will have to earn a surplus on the corpus fund of your firm. You will try to see that the cost of developing and maintaining the corpus fund is minimum. And at the same time, you will have to ensure that the returns on your investments are more than the cost of the corpus fund.

The venture capitalist firm also makes plans to exit from the business at an opportune time. So, you will have to carefully decide and plan, when and how you can exit so that you earn the maximum returns on your money.


Does this describe you?

* Very strong reasoning ability
* A critical outlook, an ability to see beyond the clutter of words
* An entrepreneurial mindset
* Excellent communication skills
* Excellent organising abilities
* An ability to keep yourself abreast of the latest in social and economic news
* An eye for details
* Excellent numerical abilities
* Strong leadership abilities and ability to take initiatives
* Hard working
The job is very complex and demanding. It will never be a dull 9-5 job. Analysing a business plan is a long and tedious process. Deciding on the investment takes longer. So, you will have to work 12 hours on most of the days. It is also a high-risk business. You will be responsible for making the right investment decisions. Any lapse on your part may put your job on the line. Alternatively, you will be rewarded if you make the right decisions and earn profits for the firm.

You will need to have an MBA or equivalent degree or diploma in management to get into this field. Also, CAs and people with a degree in finance with some experience have an edge.

People with some experience in a start-up organisation or very good managerial experience in a particular industry have good prospects in this field. Few years of experience in equity research and financial analysis can get you a good break.

Job Opportunities

A combination of a degree in Engineering from IIT and then a management degree from a premier institute will be enviable. Add to this a few years of experience in the financial sector and you are a good contender for a job. Experience in a successful start-up organisation, is another crierion for a good position.

You can get a job in:

* Indian or foreign Venture capital firms

* Venture capital branches of financial service companies like an investment bank

* Venture capital wings of commercial banks

In a VC firm, you generally join as an Analyst or as an Assistant Consultant at the entry level. You will move on to become a Consultant and then a Senior Consultant. If you have a few years of experience in your pocket, then you will be offered a job as an Associate Consultant or Associate depending on the years and quality of experience. An Associate consultant becomes a Partner or Managing Partner.

In an investment bank or a commercial bank, your career progress will be different. But it always depends on your performance. Joining as an Analyst, you can move on to become a Vice President within 6-7 years.

Money & Other Benefits

An entry-level job will pay you Rs 4,50,000-7,00,000 p.a on Indian shores.

A dollar salary will range from US $ 4,800-6,000 a month.

If you join after a few years of experience in other financial/industry job, you will get about Rs 6,00,000-18,00,000 p.a.

Senior level VCs earn about Rs 20,00,000-100, 00, 000 p.a.

Career Prospects

Though the opportunities sound very high profile and lucrative, the number of inputs in the firms is limited. It is because, typically, a VC firm or a VC capital wing of a bank is run by 10-12 people or even less. And most of the firms take experienced people. Entry-level opportunities are very few.

And though, many foreign VC firms are setting up shops in India, each firm is having 3-4 people at the most. So, overall opportunities are little.

However you move very fast in your career after you find a placement. There are enormous opportunities for the right person. But however small in number, opportunities are increasing. With the sunset in the dotcom business, there are two new sunrises - Biotechnology and telecommunication technology.



Company Secretary

Join Institute of Company Secretaries Of India (ICSI) for Secretarial and legal Matters after Graduation or +2. After +2 students are required to pass foundation examination being conducted by the Institute.  

About the Institutes

Institute of Company Secretaries Of India (ICSI) 

22,industrial area,Lodi Road, NewDelhi-110003

Started in 1980 through Special parliamentary act.

Designation after completion of course

Associate member of ICSI(ACS)

Fellow member of ICSI after completion of 5 practising years (FCS)  

Company Secretaries are recognised by law, as one of the principal officers of the company. You will act as a legal advisor to the company, plan expansion opportunities, oversee collaborations, amalgamations, acquisitions, mergers, etc. You will also interact and coordinate with other functional heads of the company. As a Company Secretary you will need to have a good hang on subjects like law, management, finance, corporate governance, corporate planning, tax planning and tax management.

Your job will involve not just meeting legal requirements and statutory compliances but also formulating long and short-term corporate policies and programmes. Basically, you will serve as a vital link between the company, its board of directors, shareholders and governmental agencies. You will act as a confidante to the Board of Directors.


You should possess the following essential attributes:

The Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) is the premier body for education in the field of Company Secretaryship. It was formed under the Company Secretaries Act, 1980 to develop and regulate the profession of Company Secretaries in India.

You could qualify for the Foundation Course exam after HSC (in any discipline, except Fine Arts) or any equivalent exam. Once you clear this, the next step is to register for the Intermediate and Final exams respectively.

Post graduates or graduates in commerce or any other discipline other than fine arts, graduates from the Institute of Cost and Works Accountancy (ICWA) or Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) can skip the Foundation Course. They could directly enroll for Intermediate exams.

For the final exams you require to undergo a minimum of one year's training or apprenticeship with a company recognised by ICSI or a practicing Company Secretary.
People with ICWA or ICAI background have a definite edge over the others when it comes to CS studies as well as job opportunities, later. The study material and tuition options - postal or coaching are provided at the time of the admission.

Once you appear for the finals, you become an associate member of the institute. At this stage the inscript 'ACS' will follow your name. The senior members eligible for fellow membership can use 'FCS' after their names.

Certificate of Practice from the ICSI is essential for being considered as a company secretary.

Job Opportunities

Company Secretary is a mandatory requirement for the companies with a paid up share capital of Rs 50 lakhs or more and the ones seeking listing on the Stock Exchange.

If you have passed the Intermediate Exam you could be employed with companies having a paid up share capital of less than Rs 50 lakhs.

You could also consider company law, administrative jobs, Financial, Personnel and Tax management as alternative career options.

Money & Other Benefits

As a fresher you could earn anything between Rs 7,000-10,000 a month depending on the organisation you work with. A senior Company Secretary earns Rs 20,000-35,000 or more a month.

To rake in more moolah you could apply abroad, particularly in the Gulf and the African countries.

Career Prospects

The growth in the corporate sector has thrown open a lot of legalities of various kinds. And this falls under the purview of a Company Secretary. Companies need advice from a person with a thorough knowledge of all relevant laws. The Company Secretary provides this service. So the employment potential in the corporate sector is very high.

With your level of expertise and experience you could always move on to become the chairman, director or managing director in reputed organisations.




India in general is a nation of fatalists. If things go bad, we tend to blame our fate. The wizards of finance however have come up with a neat way to safeguard you against the unforeseen. Find out how you can help people buy peace of mind by being an actuary.
Career Overview

An actuary is a professional who, using probability theory and mathematical, statistical and financial techniques, analyses the financial consequences of risk to enable businesses to make better-informed decisions. You will assess the financial impact of uncertain future events by methodically analysing the past, modelling the future, and quantifying the likely range of financial outcomes from different future events. Confused? Read this.

Say a person buys a car. The insurance for this car needs to be determined. The actuary does this calculation. Your skills in finance and risk management will be used in areas such as insurance, pensions and investment. Other applications include census studies, forecasting, banking and finance

You will analyse statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits. Using these statistics you will ascertain premium rates and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.

As an actuary, you will apply mathematical models to problems of insurance and finance, thus improving upon the financial decision making process.

You may also be called upon to perform the following tasks:
Advise companies on the distribution of profits to policy-holders and assist with investment policy
Manage long-term financial projects both in the public and private sectors
Measure and analyse the investment performance of financial institutions
Design, manage or supervise government financial policies in areas like social insurance and pension schemes
In some ways an actuary is a financial crystal ball gazer!


You need to have
* Ability to express conclusions clearly and concisely
* Good mathematical and analytical skills
* Ability to think clearly and logically
* Keen, analytical, project management and problem solving skills
* Good business sense
* Knowledge of finance, accounting, economics
* Good communication skills
* Strong computer skills including statistical analysis, database manipulation, etc.
* Ability to work with others
Remember, this is one career in which you need to be good at mathematics. This is a number game and you should be able to master it. If you are poor at geometry or trigonometry, then it's all right but you must be able to find out 0.7 per cent of 29,675 in a jiffy. You need to have sound analytical and logical skills.

You will be spending long hours at your table pouring over sheets and sheets of data. Patience and perseverance is therefore essential. However you must realise that at the end of all the numbers lie people. You need to have a friendly, outgoing personality with good communication skills. Only then will you be able to build up trust with your clients, which is so important in this business.

A degree in math, statistics, economics, business or finance are all good starting points for a career in actuarial science. You could even do your B.A. in actuarial science or a postgraduate certificate /diploma in insurance. To become an actuary you need to take the entrance exam conducted by the Actuarial Society of India. These are held twice a year and consists of one paper each in English and mathematics.
To become an insurance surveyor you need to be a degree or diploma holder in engineering/architecture or hold a Fellowship/Associateship of the Institute of Chartered Accountants.
You can also obtain the Fellowship or Associateship of The Institute of Insurance Surveyors and Adjusters (IISA) by giving their exam and thereby become a licenced insurance surveyor.

Job Opportunities

Challenging careers exist in a growing number of fields, including the insurance industry, consulting firms, government, banks and investment firms and large corporations. The largest growing segment for actuaries is actuarial consulting. The trend for companies, even large insurance corporations, is to outsource actuarial services. Actuarial consultants have also started to become more involved with decisions regarding health plans, advising on mergers and acquisitions, demutualisations, new product development and asset management, financial analysis, alternative distribution systems, regulatory compliance and market conduct issues.
The big brother of the Insurance industry in India is LIC (Life Insurance Corporation), which employs over 100,000 people. You could join as an Assistant Administrative Officer through the all-India examination. The examination is objective in nature and consists of logical reasoning, general knowledge and quantitative reasoning. The written exam is followed by an interview. On being selected candidates are sent for a six-month training programme.

Money & Other Benefits

Starting salaries fall in the range of Rs 4,250 - 8,500 which can work up to Rs 6,000 - 9500. As Assistant Manager your pay scale will touch Rs 7,500 - 10,000. A Zonal Manager gets Rs 14,000 a month.
This is just the basic salary Additional allowances include Dearness Allowance, Travel Allowance, City Compensatory allowance, etc which works to almost 150-200 per cent of your basic salary!

Salaries in multinational are very good indeed. At the entry level you will be paid around Rs 4 lakh p.a. and after five years of experience it can reach Rs 10,00,00 p.a.

Career Prospects

With the Insurance sector thrown open the decks are now clear for the private insurance bigwigs to venture into the strong Rs 90 billion Indian insurance sector. If all goes well, the sector's total turnover is expected to touch Rs 200 billion by 2005. At present there are about 17 Indian PSUs in the fray.

If you consider the fact that only 2 million of India's 300 million middle class is insured you can imagine the potential for expansion in this sector.

Projections suggest that for a wide spectrum of functions - marketing, sales, human resources, finance, operations, actuarial function, at least 20,000 strong work force is needed, plus 1.5 lakh agents. In five years from now managerial recruitment is likely to rise 10 times thus making it the most attractive sector in the job market.