DAIRY SCIENCE










Agriculture And Allied Fields

Agriculture is a vast and diversified field, offering numerous career options. Other than those directly engaged in farming and other such activities, the industry needs people in areas of research and development and agro industry. Then there are specialized areas, with good career prospects, like Horticulture, Floriculture, Dairy and Poultry Farming and Fishery.


Various courses on agriculture and allied activities are meant for those aspirants who are interested in this particular field by way of their studies, research, training and development, by going through a rigorous training in universities and Institutes. Aspirants can shape their career in the field of agricultural and allied fields as Agricultural Officers, scientists, researchers, developers, advisors for the industry, which is engaged in the related activities. Opportunities and avenues are always available in government and private sectors. Dedication, hard work, long hours of work, able to spend in the fields and farms along with farmers, a strong physical stamina, combination of theory and practical approach, innovative ideas, creative mind, application of mind and principles in a timely manner are required for the success in this field.


The agricultural education system in the country offers degree programmes in 11 specific disciplines viz. agriculture, veterinary science, agricultural engineering, forestry, home science, dairy technology, fisheries, sericulture, marketing, banking and co-operation, horticulture and food science with a total intake of about 11,000 students. It also offers postgraduate programmes in more than 55 fields of specialization with a total intake capacity of about 5,000 students. ICAR offers about 1200 scholarships and fellowships from the undergraduate to post-doctoral levels. Special fellowships are also offered for socially and economically weaker groups.


There are 29 agricultural universities spread in the different parts of the country and around 60 to 70 colleges in India, of various universities offering graduate, post graduate and diploma courses in these fields with various specializations in a particular field like Horticulture, dairy, poultry farming, plantations and orchards, floriculture and sericulture, agricultural chemistry, agricultural economics, animal husbandry, bio-technology, genetic engineering etc.


Candidates need to have passed 10+2 with science and clear an entrance exam for the admission to the graduate courses in agriculture and its allied fields. Subjects for entrance exam include Physics, Chemistry and Biology or Mathematics or Agriculture.


In addition the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (Bareilly), the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal and the Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Bombay fall in the category of deemed universities.


After successful completion of the course they can choose either teaching profession or go to the industry.



The nature of work differs depending upon the field of specialization. In agriculture the person has  to be actively involved in planting, harvesting, marketing and other aspects of field work. Horticulture involves doing research work on plants and is a very applied field. It is a science  which includes floriculture or cultivation of flowers, pomology or cultivation of  foods, olericulture or cultivation of vegetables. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science and Dairy Science is a scientific management and caring for animals for maximum production. The veterinary science people look after the medical requirements of animals. Sericulture involves rearing for silk worms through various scientific and indegenous methods to produce silk fibres. Forests help in stabilizing soil and regulating the flow of water into streams and rivers and checking aridity. It is also concerned primarily with the production of timber for sale, and is involved with the development of landscape, conservation of wild life and public recreation.

Agricultural Scientists

The work of an agriculture scientist is generally research oriented and would depend on the area of specialization. They work towards developing better varieties of seeds and plants (agronomy), which are high yielding and have greater resistance against pests and diseases (entomology). They may also work in any other area having connection with agriculture like, improvement in quality of soil, food processing and preservation, agriculture by-products, farm animals, soil and water conservation etc.

Educational Qualification:

Graduate/Postgraduate in Agriculture


There are ample employment opportunities in this sector. As indicated earlier specialists in this field can work in Central and State Departments of agriculture, Government organisations like the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), in food processing industry, as teachers.

Agriculture Engineers

They deal with agriculture machinery and power, soil and water conservation, rural electrification and other technical aspects of farming as well as in processing of farm products. Since their role is very vital for reconstruction of rural areas, this area of specialization in engineering has extremely good career prospects in our country.

Educational Qualification:

Graduate/Postgraduate in Agricultural Engineering


Agricultural Engineers find employment in government sector, water management projects, area development projects, minor irrigations projects, Food Corporation of India, National Seeds Corporation, Dairy and Food Industries, National Dairy Development Board and many research organisations. They also have ample opportunities in private sector.

Agriculture Officers

The Department of Agriculture in every state handles all the development schemes relating to agricultural crops, seeds and yields as well as fixes targets and does the monitoring. These departments recruit gazetted officers e.g. District Agriculture Officer, Assistant Director of Agriculture, through the State Service Commission. Various other government departments and banks also recruit officers with an academic background in agriculture.

Educational Qualification:

Graduates/postgraduates in Agriculture/Agricultural engineering


Employment avenues are available in government department and in some private organizations.

Dairy Technologists

There are two main types of jobs in dairy industry- the first pertains to production and the second to processing. Processing involves handling of milk for distribution or its conversion into dairy products. Dairy Technologists mainly deal with processing aspect and also work to develop improved methods in production, preservation and utilization of milk, and milk products.

Educational Qualification:

BTech/Diploma In Dairy Technology


Opportunities for dairy technologists exist in both the public as well as in the private sector. In the public sector co–operatives, Federations and Rural Banks provide ample scope for the dairy technologists. In the private sector, openings can be available with private enterprises that manufacture and market milk products. A large number of dairy technologists also own dairy business or work as consultants.

Fishery Scientists

Fishery Scientists are usually engaged in the development of fish breeding farms, head a research team, undertake surveys of streams and lakes, quality of waters to determine the quantity of fish as well as to prevent pollution and spread of disease. They also work in factories engaged in preservation and canning of fish products for exports. Prawn and shrimp farming has come in a big way in our country, and is an area with huge job potential.

It is pertinent to note that India has a natural advantage for fisheries. Its coastline stretches more than eight thousand kilometres and it also has a huge inland fish potential with a well spread location of rivers, canals and reservoirs. The country has an estimated fish production potential of 8.5 million tonnes. Besides being a source of cheap and nutritious food to a large section of poor population, fisheries sector has been a major contributor of foreign exchange earnings through export. During 1997-98 the earnings from export fishery products amounted to about Rs. 47 billion, i.e., about US$ 1.12 billion.  Earlier the foreign exchange earnings were largely from shrimp exports and diversification of the products being exported is gradually taking place. All these therefore make prospects in this area very bright.

Educational Qualification:

BF Sc/ MSc Fisheries Science


Job openings are available in Sea Food companies and government breeding and training organizations. Own enterprise can be a viable option for professionals in this area.


The work for a horticulturist is to supervise and suggest adoption of better agricultural practices for enhancing yield as well as getting desired quality. Horticulturists are also involved in processing, preservation and marketing of fruits and vegetables. In the area of research, horticulturists look for ways to improve and breed new varieties of fruits and vegetables or flowers by the application of scientific techniques such as tissue culture, micro-propagation, embryo culture etc. Some take up cultivation of plants and flowers including cultivation of decorative plants for sale.

Educational Qualification:

Graduate/Postgraduate Degree in Agriculture, with specialization in areas like pomology (cultivation of fruits), floriculture and food processing.


Horticulturists find job in the government sector for development and maintenance as well as landscaping of public parks, gardens, golf courses etc. They also, work in botanical gardens, tea gardens and other such large plantations and supervise the entire operation. Openings are also available in the Government agencies like Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) and Institute of Horticulture Research; Nationalised Banks, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD); Corporate Houses with interests in the areas of food processing or marketing of food products; farm/estate managers at horticultural farms or estates; research openings particularly in the areas of genetic engineering, bio–technology etc.; self employment.

Poultry Farming

The growing consciousness about diet and requirement of protein and other such nutrients in food, especially among the people living in urban and semi urban areas has brought about a change in dietary habits. Chicken and eggs, at affordable costs, are most easily available source for such nutrients. This factor, as well as the fact that breeding chickens is comparatively easy and profits substantial has contributed to the rapid growth of poultry farming in the last couple of decades. Today poultry farming has developed into a huge industry involving approximately seven lacs people.

Poultry farming encompasses breeding and rearing of chicks for different purposes, feed formulation, preventing and controlling disease and overall management of the farm including finance and marketing functions. Success in this field demands a combination of good managerial skills and specialized knowledge about the job.

Educational Qualification:

Graduates/postgraduates In Veterinary Science; Institute of Poultry Management in Pune also offers basic poultry management and other courses related to the field. Government Poultry Farm, near Chattarpur in Delhi also offers short duration training for poultry farming to entrepreneurs and workers.


Graduates in Poultry Farming finds employment in large poultry farms, feed production industries, government poultry extension cells involved in large scale of marketing of poultry products.



State Deptt. of Agriculture : Agriculture is a state subject and is administered by the Department of Agriculture in States headed by a full time Director.

Organizations working in the field of Agriculture : The following organizations recruit junior scientists as technical assistants: National Seed Corpn., State Farm Corpn., Ware-housing Corpn. and Food Corpn. of India.

Business Occupations : Firms today employ young people who have combined agricultural education with studies in Economics and Business Administration in jobs such as agricultural  finance, insurance, transportation, storage, wholesale and retail marketing of agricultural products.

Banks : Nationalised banks and financial institutions such as NABARD provide employment  opportunities for agricultural graduates. They are recruited as Field Officers, Rural Development Officer, Agricultural Probationary Officers etc.

Farming : Farming is a profession open to persons even without a professional degree. However, agricultural graduates and postgraduates have a distinct advantage over their  other counterparts because this is now big business and a growing enterprise which is becoming very competitive and requires specialised knowledge to be a successful farmer.

Research : Agriculture research or education and extension work is available at central and state levels at :I.C.A.R., Agricultural Universities and State Directorates of Agriculture.

Self Employment is available by setting up farms, production and marketing of foodgrain and other farming activities.


Industry, Holiday Resorts, Hotels and Health Farms : They employ Resident Horticulturists and Consultant Landscapers as Supervisor, Farm Manager, Estate Manager etc.

Teaching : Teachers in schools /colleges.

Horticulture Department : In the department of horticulture one can work as Director, Deputy Director, District Horticulture Officer, Horticulture Assistant, Mechanic, Gardner.

Self Employment : To be self employed one can set up nurseries for growing and breeding plants and Garden Shops as well as florist shops for selling seeds, fertilizers and plants, or be employed in an advisory capacity.


Self Employment : Self employment exists in growing mulberry, weaving, reeling and in cottage & small-scale industries.

Government Posts : In the State Ministry of  Sericulture there are positions at Supervisory, Technical and Administrative level.


Self Employment : For example setting up dog and cat clinics, cattle dispensaries, oultry farms etc.

Pharmaceutical Companies : also employ veterinary science personnel eg. Sarabhai Chemical Ltd., Bombay, Aries Agro-Veterinary Industries Pvt. Ltd., Bombay, Warner Hindustan Ltd., Bombay, etc.

Government Posts : In the Central and State Govt. a person can join as a Veterinary Doctor in Veterinary Hospitals. Besides these jobs also exists in State Sector Corporations as well as Municipal Corporations.

Armed Forces :The Indian Army employs veterinary personnel who are recruited into its Remount Veterinary Corps (R.V.C.). Those finally selected are sent to the R.V.C. centre at Meerut Cantt. for six months training. During the training period they are given the rank of Lieutenant.


Dairy Development Projects : Such as Public and Cooperative Dairies, Public Sector Dairy Farms as Assistant Milk Procurement Officer, Junior Dairy Bacteriologist, Project Manager, Dairy Development Assistant .

Self Employment in the form of opening one's own Dairy farm .

Teaching and Research : in teaching and research as Technical Assistant, Research Assistant etc.

Government Posts : In State and Central Government departments.

Employment Organizations : Central Cattle Breeding Farm, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Delhi Milk Scheme, New Delhi, Central Sheep Breeding Farm, Hissar, Central Training Institute for Poultry Production, Bangalore.


Government Posts : In Government Fisheries Organisations.

Research : In research institutes as research scientist.

Other Areas : Fish Reproduction and Genetics Breeding; Soil Water and Productivity Management; Fishing, Processing and Product Development; Fisheries, Oceanography and Management


Government Posts : Forest Corporations, Social Forestry Directorates, National astelands Development Board, State Forest Departments, Departments of Rural Development and Soil Conservation, Environment Ministry.

Indian Forest Service : Officers recruited into the I.F.S. are appointed as Assistant  Conservator of Forests. They are posted in the fields with Range Officers, Foresters and Forest Guard under their supervision.

Other Areas : Jobs are also available in Non-governmental organizations and forest based industries.    




Does the term agriculture flood your mind with black and white frames from Mother India? Or that famous Manoj Kumar song "Mere desh ki dharti?" Then, welcome to the world of knowledge. Agriculture is not all about ploughing, sowing and reaping. On the contrary, it’s a very tech-savvy profession which involves a lot of research. Ready to reap a lot of money? Here’s more…

 ‘Jai Jawaan! Jai Kisaan!’ goes the slogan coined by the founding fathers of India. Half a century later, agriculture still remains our mainstay. New advances in Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering have thrown up many opportunities in this field. And with government support came tax benefits and even more money.

The field of agriculture includes farm management, businesses and industries that manufacture agricultural machinery, industries that buy and process the farm products, banking activities for financing and developing farms, research for improving quantity and quality of farm products, so on and so forth.

As an Agricultural Scientist you will work in the following areas:

You can specialise in a variety of areas, including the study of such relationships as organisms and their environments, soil and water, structures and the environment, genetics and plant breeding, seeds and quality of crops, or plant diseases and micro-organism. To succeed in this field you need innovation and precision.


To make a mark in this field you need:

You have to be at least a B.Sc. in Agricultural Science to get a job. To be eligible for B.Sc. in agriculture after a 10+2 in Science, you are required to clear an entrance exam, which includes Biology, Chemistry and Physics.

After M.Sc. in Agriculture you could get into Agricultural research. A Ph.D. will ensure a very good career as an agricultural scientist.

Job Opportunities

An agricultural scientist finds opportunities in:

As an Agricultural Scientist you could work in industries that are into vegetable and crop production, processing farms, food freezing and storage plants, poultry farms, grain mills, semi processed, fully processed food plants, etc. Opportunities also exist in the farming, processing, research & development, and marketing functions.

Government agencies like Food Corporation of India and various Central and State government ministries and directorates employ agricultural scientists. Recruitments are generally made by Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commission.

Some of the job positions could be Agricultural Extension Officer, Seed Production Officers, Agricultural Assistants, Plant Protection Officer, Soil Conservation Officer, Farm Superintendents or Technical Assistants.

Opportunities in Banks
Nationalised banks employ Agricultural Extension Officer, Rural Development Officer, Field Officer, Agricultural Credit Officers and others with qualifications in Agricultural Science.

You'll be inducted as an Agricultural Probationary Officer. Apart from the nationalised banks agricultural graduates are also employed by Gamin Banks under NABARD, Co-operative banks, Small Industries Development Banks, etc.

Opportunities in the non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and co-operatives working in the rural and agricultural sector. Various non-profit organisations and co-operatives like Agha Khan Rural Support Programme involved in the rural and agricultural sector employ agriculture graduates.

Money & Other Benefits

In the farming and processing industry: Rs 5,000-8,000 a month or more.

Research & Development position after M.Sc: Rs 6,000-8,000 a month.

Agricultural research after Ph.D: Rs 12,000-13,000 per month

Lecturer: Rs 13,000-14,000 per month (starting salary)

In a marketing function of an agri company: Rs 4,500-7,000 or more per month, plus various allowances and incentives.

Career Prospects

This is a technologically sophisticated and ever expanding field, which needs more and more people each day. Currently, in India the research done in agriculture is of international standard. So, agricultural engineers have very good career prospects.

The green revolution has in its wake brought numerous job opportunities in all the above fields. Government ministries and departments, research institutions, agricultural universities and various agricultural service organisations hold immense job opportunities for agricultural scientists.

With the entry of several corporate houses in the area of food processing, researchers are in great demand in new areas such as Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. And with Indian-made wines and champagnes finding favour in the west, agriculture is fast becoming an export industry, opening up doors for would be entrepreneurs.


Dairy Technologist and Poultry Supervisors

The fundamentals of dairy technology are based on the science of Biochemistry, Bacteriology and Nutrition. Dairy farming includes breeding and care of high yielding cattle, procuring and processing milk into a variety of dairy products like cream, butter, cheese, ghee, biscuits, ice-cream, puddings, custards, etc.

We also get various types of milk like whole milk, double toned milk, toned milk, skimmed milk, etc. Milk is also processed to produce various products like yogurt, butter, ghee, ice-cream, etc. This production process requires engineers for the maintenance of processing plants and dairy technologists for overseeing the processing of milk products.

Dairy technologists work in procuring milk from rural dairy farmers or as supervisors in large dairies, monitoring the procurement and collection process. Marketing of the dairy products is handled by marketing and sales professionals.

Poultry farming encompasses the breeding and rearing of chicken, feed formulation, feed substitutes/additives and prevention and control of diseases. It also involves the overall management of the farm including finance and marketing functions.

Dairy Technologists are needed to run these ultra modern firms that process milk in semi automatic or fully automatic systems. They also man the analytical and quality control laboratories. There is even scope to branch into marketing.

The dairy industry can be split into two broad categories viz. production and processing. Milk production involves collection of milk for which breeding and rearing of high yielding cattle is involved. The Procurement Officer carries out this procurement or collection of milk from various sources.

You will also be required to come up with ways to utilise waste products and produce better products with increased shelf-life for human consumption. You will check the quality and packaging as well. Organising the distribution of products and maintaining records will keep you busy.

Dairy Technologists also work as milk procurement officers. In the processing industry, you could work as a consultant or as an Engineer and look after plant maintenance, fabrication, equipment, plant design and project execution.

Different types of poultry farms cater to different segments of the market. Breeding farms are set up for the sole purpose of hatching and raising poultry for sale to other farmers. The farmers who buy poultry from these farms set up broiler farms. Broiler chickens are reared just for their meat.

The common practise is to procure day-old chicks, keep them for six weeks and market them. During the time that they are in the farm, their feeding, supplements, etc. is closely monitored. Another type of poultry farm is layer farm, where the chicken is raised only for egg production. In a breeding farm or hatchery the work will involve procurement of eggs, ensuring proper conditions for hatching, etc.

Feeding is an important aspect of the work at the farm. The birds need a balanced diet in the right quantity for a disease-free growth. So the feed should be specially formulated keeping various factors in mind. This, in fact, is such a specialised area that large corporate houses are now manufacturing animal feed. A lot of planning and research goes into the manufacture of animal feed, to suit specific areas and ensure optimal production.

Another important aspect of poultry farms is disease control. Adequate precautions need to be taken to keep diseases at bay. You will have to be well informed about vaccines, deficiencies and how to counteract them, basic hygiene, etc.

Ensuring adequate water supply and the right amount of feed supply to the birds, keeping a lookout for any sick bird, etc. are all a part of the daily work which goes on in a poultry farm.

You could specialise in areas like vaccinations, artificial insemination, research on feed formulation, use of feed additives, even managing the amount of light the birds are exposed to, etc. Once you graduate to being in charge of quality control, you have pressures like maintaining quality standards of perishable items.


For a successful career in this field you need to have a scientific temper. This job calls for field work. So you have to have good stamina. Strong management skills are some other requirements.

A Dairy Technologist needs to have sound understanding of the principles of Bacteriology, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering and Economics too. The study of Dairy Technology involves Dairy Engineering (applied to production processes), Dairy Chemistry dealing with composition of products, etc.

You can do a B.Tech. in Dairy Technology or B.Sc. in Dairy Technology after 10+2 level with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. These courses are of four-year duration. Admission is through an All India Entrance Examination conducted for selection to courses in Veterinary Sciences, Dairy Technology and Agricultural Sciences.
Alternatively, you could even do your Engineering in Agriculture or an M.Tech specialising in any of the following: Diary Microbiology, Dairy Chemistry, Dairy Technology, Dairy Engineering, Animal Genetics and Breeding, Livestock Production and Management, Animal Nutrition, Animal Physiology, Biochemistry, Dairy Economics, Dairy Extension Education, Animal Biotechnology and allied fields.

The Master's course is also open to graduates in pure sciences, agriculture, veterinary science, animal sciences, food technology, engineering and home science. Training courses in poultry farming include practical aspects such as conducting analytical and diagnostic tests related to animal feed and disease control.

There are basic courses meant for people who are new to the concept of poultry farming. Then there are courses that are aimed at updating existing skills to help keep abreast with new advancements in technology. Besides comprehensive courses on poultry farming, there are basic and refresher courses as well.

Job Opportunities

Opportunities in poultry farming are far too many. You could start off working in a large poultry farm or hatchery. After gaining enough experience, you could start out on your own.

Dairy Technologists find employment opportunities in public and privately managed dairy farms, co-operatives, rural banks, milk products processing and manufacturing industries. They work in quality control departments and in biotechnological research labs.

Graduates in poultry farming find employment in large poultry farms, breeding farms, laboratories working on feed formulation and analysis, pharmaceutical firms and in large scale marketing divisions of poultry products.

Many graduates also set up their own venture like small-scale milk plants, creameries, ice-cream units, etc. Teaching and research is another option that you can milk for all that it is worth.

Animal feed is a very specialised area and people trained in poultry farming can find employment with companies engaged in the manufacture of animal feeds. Here you will oversee manufacture and also act as consultant to farmers.

Feed analysis laboratories also require your services as also veterinary hospitals and pharmaceutical concerns. You also have technical consultant outfits that are known to provide consultancy services to various hi-tech dairy farms.

Money & Other Benefits

Trainees in this field generally receive a stipend of Rs 1,200 per month. In the beginning you can expect a salary of Rs 6,500-8,500 per month depending on the organisation.

The remuneration increases proportionately as one rises higher in the organisation. A General Manager would easily have his account credited with a five-figure salary. Mind you, it is a long and arduous journey to the top.

Entrepreneurs on the other hand reap the maximum benefits. You could almost be earning 10 times as much.

Career Prospects

The growing consciousness among people for protein rich food has given a much-needed boost to the dairy industry. Preservation of milk is an area of specialisation, where dairy technologists need to come out with new ideas every day. Dairy and poultry industries now-a-days are much more organised and centralised. There are many co-operative dairies and poultry firms.

Both the private and public sector have openings for those who specialise in Dairy Technology. In the area of processed dairy products, specialists like dairy technologists are always in demand.

The emergence and popularisation of an urban lifestyle has also led to an ever-increasing demand for poultry products. Hence the potential in this field is tremendous. There are new avenues in the processed food industry.

The going might be tough initially. Managing on a stipend you will have to work long hours in remote areas. The risk factor for a poultry farmer is also high. Out breaks of diseases can completely ruin your business. It is safe to say that it is not for the faint hearted.


Fishery Science

There is nothing fishy about a career in Fishery Sciences.

Developing and maintaining the sea wealth is what fisheries aim at. This involves the breeding of good quality fishes, ensuring the continuance of genetic specie strengths, securing the non-extinction of species and implementing scientific methods of fishing.

With scientific fish culturing the quality of fishes can be improved and the unpredictability of the catch be minimised. This way fishing as an occupation can be made more viable. This is all the more significant considering the increased global demand for quality fishes and canned foods.

Your job will involve not just experimenting in a laboratory, but also working in fish farms. You will strategise aquatic systems through fish community management. Assessing the impact of change in habitat on fishes and reviewing the experiment methodology is also your job.

You will study fish and fauna and research projects mainly focused on the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. For e.g. impact on fish breeding due to manmade structures such as dams.

A major branch of Fishery Science is Aquaculture. This is mainly farming of aquatic organisms (e.g., fish, aquatic plants, etc.) in natural or controlled marine or freshwater. You will create commercial hatcheries and breed fishes in grow-out ponds and see to it that they reach good marketable size. Developing novel and innovative technologies for use in aquaculture, for example aerators, pumps, feeding equipment etc. will also be done by you.

You will develop new aquacultural species and also create innovative and cost effective solutions in aquaculture. You will then market the products and even export it abroad. Another good option is to offer expertise from project formulation stage to the implementation and successful operation of hatchery and farming.


A curious, inquisitive mind would help you in research areas. Quick thinking and the ability to come up with new and more advanced ideas are a must. You need to have high stamina and energy levels, able to work even in disagreeable weather conditions. This is important as you cannot afford to turn down a project just because you get seasick or because you are afraid of sharks.

Fishery Science can be studied at the B.Sc. level after completing 10+2 with Biological Science as one of the subjects. You can also do your M.Sc in Fishery Science after completing your BSc. in Zoology. Your understanding of Biology, Chemistry and Physics will constantly be drawn upon in your study of Fishery Science.

Job Opportunities

Career avenues are numerous in Fishery Science. Opportunities lie in government agencies, State Departments of Agriculture and organisations such as the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI). Recruitment to these institutions is through the State Public Service Commission. Private research companies in India and abroad are also entering this area with large investments.
Several corporate houses have also entered the area of fish food processing and marketing, for which persons specialised in Fish Processing Technology or Fisheries Resources and Management are preferred.

Apart from these, you also have academic options. Fisheries and Aquatic Resource research is conducted in many institutions across the country. If you have good research skills, then you can find employment in organisations such as the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT), the National Fisheries Development Board and others.

Your services will also be sought in building an Oceanarium or a Public Aquarium.

Self-employment . set up your own private hatchery. The population of fish and water animals is fast depleting with industrial and urban wastes polluting seawater. This has given rise to hatcheries who to fill the gap between supply and demand.
Other opportunities include:

Money & Other Benefits

Your starting salary will be in the range of Rs 5,000-7,000 a month.
Government jobs don't offer much growth but offer stability, something you would not get especially in the fish farming industry. Research positions especially in private firms are more lucrative in the range of Rs 18,000-20,000 per month. But these are usually reserved for doctorate holders with experience. Money for studies that are carried out by teams of fishery experts is usually on a project to project basis.

Career Prospects

India is 4th largest shrimp supplier to the US market (19,000 tons last year). India holds the seventh position in the world as regards to the value of fish exports. But Agriculture is not considered 'hot' and fishery science is almost unheard of. But the fact remains that demand is not able to meet supply. So opportunities are there for the taking.




A career in horticulture is your best bet if you love being closer to nature - plants, fruits, flowers and what have you. If gardening is your favourite past time you can now extend it as a career and develop virus resistant potatoes, or simply increase the yield of your favourite fruit.

Career Overview

Horticulture is the science and art of producing nutritious food for the body - fruits, nut and vegetable crops - and beautiful food for the soul - flowers, ornamental plants and lawns. It trains students in many aspects of plant science-physiology, nutrition, identification, soils, disease and insect control. If you choose to be a horticulturist you could even try your hand at landscaping. Creative horticulturists are needed to design and plan interior and exterior landscapes for homes, office buildings, parks, campuses and golf courses.

The four main specialties in horticulture include:

Pomology: Cultivation of fruits, shrubs and vines.
Olericulture: Plants raised for use as vegetables.
Floriculture: Production and use of flowering and foliage plants.
Ornamental Horticulture: Plants grown outdoors for landscaping.

You'll be involved in everything - creating and maintaining horticultural and floriculture farms, parks and gardens, plant pathology, fruit and vegetable processing, preservation and marketing of fruits, vegetables and flowers, etc. You will also manage and supervise agricultural practices and maximise yields.

The main areas of work in horticulture are:

Farming - Here you'll work on soil preparation, sowing, harvesting, testing and usage of fertilisers and nutrients, scientific management of the environment, etc. Mind you this is not a cushy job. You'll have to get your hands dirty, literally. It's a lot of physical labour and as such not for everyone.

Gardening - Here you'll take care of flowers, trees, shrubs, ornamental trees, etc. Grafting, collecting seeds, de-budding, etc. also fall under gardening.

Processing - Your main aim is to increase the shelf life of food items. It's a detailed process that starts from raw material to the final distribution of the end products (which is either packaged or kept in original form).

Research - This involves investigating and creating new and improved varieties of flowers, fruits and vegetables with the help of state-of-the-art machines and techniques like the tissue culture, embryo culture, micro-propagation. You'll work mainly at the government-funded research institutions as well as research and development laboratories owned by private sector companies (that handle the processing and marketing of horticultural foods).

Teaching/Advisory Arena - You could be teach in colleges and universities or take up an advisory position in a company.


You will at least need a 4 years' degree course in Horticulture which is offered at almost all the Agricultural Universities in India. One can also enter the field with a degree in Agricultural Science or an M.Sc. in Agricultural Science. M.Sc. in Horticulture is another route to enter this field. A diploma in Horticulture is also a good option.

Job Opportunities

Qualified horticulturists and floriculture specialists can be employed at various levels:

* As Horticulturists, Supervisors, Farm Managers and Estate Managers at horticultural farms and estates.

* In government organisations like the Department of Agriculture in every state, ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) and the Institute for Horticulture Research appoint horticulturists, assistants, etc.
* In private organisations involved in the processing, marketing and export of fruits, vegetables or flowers.

* Various avenues for self employment are open including setting up one's own farm for growing fruits, vegetables or flowers, or ornamental plants

* Running nurseries in an advisory capacity with an organisation that deals with horticultural activities.

* Research openings, particularly in the area of genetic engineering.

* You could also work as a Quality Inspector for commercial canning in quick-freezing stations or packaging for the domestic and export market.

* There are even some industrial houses, which handle large-scale scientific cultivation of fruits and vegetables. Opportunities exist here too.

Money & Other Benefits

You would begin with Rs 4, 000-8, 000 per month in a farm. With experience it would grow to Rs 8,000-20,000 or more per month.

Career Prospects

Horticulture is no longer a leisurely avocation and is fast assuming the status of a vibrant commercial venture. The annual demand for flowers in the domestic market continues to grow. The demand in the international market for Indian flowers is growing too. Therefore the prospects for horticulture specialists are extremely bright.

Technological advancements in this field have laid great emphasis on improving regular varieties of fruits and vegetables for processing purposes, creating exotic species for decorative and commercial purposes and mass scale multiplication of species for increased productivity. So, the demand for Horticulturists is growing.



Veterinary Doctor

Veterinarians are doctors who not only diagnose and control animal diseases, but also prescribe medical or surgical treatment for diseases in animals. They prevent transmission of disease and advise on pet care and farm animals.
Veterinarians not only deal with household pets but also work for the care, sustenance and breeding of animals in the agricultural sector.
Your job as a vet will involve investigation, diagnosis and treatment of injuries and ailments in animals. If you choose research, you will work in laboratories on subjects such as Pathology, Bacteriology, Genetics, Physiology, Anatomy, etc. You will also conduct innovative research on biological products, food, pharmaceuticals and also work in animal genetics and breeding.
Animal Genetics is an interesting topic of research which deals with problems concerning the evolution of new breeds, rearing of livestock, genetically controlling diseases, artificial insemination, sterilization, etc. You will also study inherent traits of animals and conduct analytical studies for tracing the genesis of these in environment, food, colour, growth, maturity, sterility, disease, etc.
Conducting experiments to come up with improved breed of animals that have better resistance to diseases, higher yield in products such as milk, meat, eggs, even silk, wool, etc. is the job of a Veterinarian


It goes without saying that you got to have a love for animals of all kinds (and not just your cute Dalmatian). Good communication skills come next. No, you won't have to talk to the pets as did Dr Dolittle, but gift of the gab will be resourceful when dealing with pet owners.
"A vet's job does not end with just treating the animal. It also involves talking to the pet owners about their pet, the treatment and the follows ups. And this has to be skilful talking as you are constantly dealing with over sentimental owners," says Dr. Nehete, Senior Professor, Parel Veterinary College.
Patience is a virtue as you are dealing with mute animals here. So a veterinarian needs to be extra sensitive, patient and perceptive. You got to be physically strong with good stamina and quick reflexes as your job will involve dealing with animals of all sizes. You should be quick to gauge t he animal's mood. Willingness to work in uncomfortable surroundings is a must.
If anything a veterinarian's job is more difficult than that of a doctor dealing with humans. This is because a veterinarian's patients cannot communicate verbally. After all Dr. Dolittle happen only in fiction!
As for the educational qualifications the base as in all fields of medicine is a 10+2 (Physics, Chemistry and Biology). You can choose a graduate or postgraduate course in Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry.
The graduate course known as B.V.Sc is of four years duration followed by one-year of practical internship. You can go for a Masters course M.V.Sc after this. You can specialise in Animal Anatomy, Animal Biotechnology, Animal Husbandry, Animal Economics, Animal Husbandry Extension, Animal Reproduction, Livestock Extension, Animal Genetics and Breeding, Dairy Science and Technology, Dairy Chemistry, Dairy Engineering, Dairy Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Feed and Fodder Technology, Meat Science and Technology, Animal Nutrition, Poultry Science and Technology, Piggery, Preventive Medicine, Toxicology, etc.
 After B.V.Sc. students can also appear for Biotechnology entrance test for a future in this branch.

Selection Procedure: The Veterinary Council of India, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 conducts an All India Common Entrance Examination for admission to 15 per cent seats in each veterinary college for B.V.Sc. or AH (Animal Husbandry). A minimum of 50 per cent aggregate marks in PCB and English is required in the qualifying examination for taking the test.
The Indian Council for Agricultural Research, Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi - 110012 conducts an All India Entrance examination for filling up 15 per cent of the total seats in State Agricultural universities and 100 per cent seats in National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal and Central Agriculture University, Imphal in several subjects related to this field including Veterinary science.

Job Opportunities

Veterinary scientists work both in the rural and urban setting. Dairy farms, stud farms, poultry farms, and agriculturists employ veterinary scientists to care for the animals.
Veterinarians work in the agricultural sector in rural areas, in government animal husbandry departments, poultry and dairy farms, private and government veterinary hospitals and clinics. Veterinary scientists also work with the government, the Armed Forces and the Border Security Forces for the care of the mounted regiments.
With the trend of keeping pets at home Veterinarians are much in demand in the urban areas. Private practices flourish in these areas. Vets are also employed in colleges for teaching purposes.
Other areas of functioning include vaccination of animals, providing information on nutrition and health, scientific breeding using methods like in-vitro fertilisation and artificial insemination, experiments on animals in or der to control diseases spread by them, research involving animals for various purposes like vaccine production, animals genetics and so on.

Money & Other Benefits

If you are into private practise, the money will actually depend on your area of practise. On an average a vet charges Rs 75-100 per visit (excluding the cost of medicines). And for a home visit it shoots up to Rs 150-250. They generally work in two shifts - mornings and evenings. So that's a lot of money. On an average a veterinarian can earn in the range of Rs 30,000-50,000 per month.

Career Prospects

For those who love animals this is the best career choice. The scope for veterinarians is a swell. Your area of work will not be restricted to zoos, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Various organisations employ veterinarians in their research and development departments. Postgraduates in the field of veterinary science can go in for research.