Do you want to trace your roots back in History? Does everything old fascinate you? Are you curious to know how people in the olden ages lived - their ways and culture? If you are the inquisitive kind with a quest for the unknown then you were born to be an Anthropologist.
As an Anthropologist you'll study human beings - their physical character, evolutionary history, racial classification, historical and present day geographic distribution, group relationships and cultural History. And in between all this if you happen to take a look at your bank balance, you won't be disappointed.
Anthropology can be characterised as the study and interpretation of diverse people and culture around the world. It's the science concerned with the study of the evolution of humankind. As an anthropologist you'll study and compare present and past societies and cultures. Writing and presenting reports on your findings is a part of your job profile.
One aspect of the job involves extensive fieldwork - living with and studying different cultures of people from different societies. You have to observe and record family and group relationships and activities. Information gathered is on the basis of behaviour, language and biology of the societies.
All this is done to find out more about societies; how they developed, what were the causes that lead them to develop, and test new ideas, which may help to improve the present societies we live in. As an anthropologist you'll write and present your research findings to the concerned party for whom the research is carried out. You can even advice government departments and private organisations on cultural matters and the concerns of different people.
The elementary branches in Anthropology are:
Social Anthropology: It deals
only with the social formation and history of a society. Anthropologists here study
the different cultural groups and trace the cultural evolution and patterns of
change over a period of time.
Psychological Anthropology: It's a branch of anthropology that deals with the links between an individual and his culture. It uses psychology to analyse the different behavioural patterns of individuals of the same culture.
Cultural Anthropology: It uses archaeology, ethnography, ethnology, folklore, and languages to study different cultures of the diverse peoples of the world. Cultural anthropologists study socio-economic changes, changes in value systems in various societies, cultural difference and the origin of such difference, evolution of languages, man-woman relations in human societies in different cultures over the years, etc.
Physical or Biological Anthropology: It deals with physical and biological nature and characteristics of humans, chimps, gorillas, monkeys, etc., their past links and present conditions.
Archaeological Anthropology: Archaeological anthropologists analyse and study human civilisations, their origin and development by excavating the preserved historical remains of the past civilisations. They then outline how people of ancient civilisations lived, the tools they used, various societal relations that existed, their rituals, clothes, accessories, etc. The outcome of their work is a clear picture of ancient human civilisation. Some other interesting sub disciplines in which you can specialise:
Osteology: the study of bones and skeletal remains
Paleoanthropology: the study of old dead primates of the ancient world. It includes study of both human and non-human primates.
Forensic Anthropology: analysing bones or skeletal remains of human in cases of legal importance.
Linguistic Anthropology: analysing origin and development of various languages, phonetics in the world.
Mostly anthropologists keep regular office hours except during field research when they have to work outside under difficult conditions.
Above all, you should have patience and perseverance - a career in anthropology is essentially a research based career. You need to have at least an M. Sc. in Anthropology. However, a PhD in anthropology is preferred. For a B.Sc. in anthropology, you must have cleared the intermediate level examination, with a background in science.
You can find work in the following institutions:
Most of the opportunities are as teaching faculty and research fellows in university departments.
Money & Other Benefits
University professor: Rs 12,000-13,000 per month (gross salary for beginners) and could rise up to Rs 25,000 a month.
Government departments: Rs 10,000 per month in the beginning, inclusive of all allowances (starting salary)
Anthropological Survey of India: Rs 8,000, exclusive of all allowances.
A job abroad: $30,000-80,000 p.a.
Since almost all the jobs are government jobs, the salary may not be very exciting. But consider the job security and less job pressure.
Salaries in this field are hiked on the basis of experience. You can get a maximum salary of Rs 25,000 (as of the present scale) as a senior professor or in an equivalent rank.
The career prospects for postgraduates with sufficient research experience are very bright, especially due to the increased awareness in human origin all over the world. However, in India, the prospects for anthropologist are not very great, as India is not yet very open to the idea of an anthropologist.
Do you ever wonder how people in the medievial ages lived? Was History your favourite subject in school? Does everything old fascinate you? If the film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom left an everlasting impression on you, then you should an archaeologist.
Archaeology can be an extremely interesting field of study to quench your curiosity about the past and its secrets. It is a multi-disciplinary science involving a great deal of training in subjects like Chemistry, Anthropology, Geology, etc.
Learning about the past civilisations involves knowing about every aspect - the lifestyles, the architecture of the regions, cultural influences, etc. This makes Archaeology a very engrossing and fulfilling career, as well as one of the most demanding and competitive branches of social sciences.
Archaeologists in this line of work
excavate, preserve, study and classify artifacts of the near and distant past
in order to understand the ancient civilisations. It is mainly thanks to them
that all our old artifacts and objects of historic importance are preserved.
The work of an Archaeologist is very slow and meticulous. Moreover, most of the archaelogical sites are situated in earth's extreme temperature zones. Here, you will often have to spend hours in extreme climatic conditions carefully dusting a fragment of a Harappan building with a toothbrush or examine thousands of tiny, nearly identical chipped stone axes.
One of the major aspects of the job of an Archeaologist is epigraphy. This involves taking ink impressions of ancient inscriptions on copper plates, stupas, rocks, monuments, etc. and decoding or deciphering them. Another equally important area of work is numismatics, which is the study of old coins, paper money and items such as medals for the purpose of understanding and restructuring the past.
First of all, you got to have a
genuine interest in ancient culture and history. You need to be inquisitive (a
probing nature), perceptive and willing to work hard. Good physical stamina is
extremely important. Of course, it goes without saying that you need to be
You can take up Archaeology as one of the subjects at the B.A. level. For this you need to have studied History in your 12th. For an two-year M.A. you need to have completed your B.A. in Archaeology or other related areas.
You can also choose to do a
two-year post graduate diploma course at the Institute of Archaeology after an
M.A./M.Sc in archaeology or anthropology or a Masters degree in medieval or
Ancient Indian History. You will have to appear for an interview and written
exam to enroll for this course. On being admitted you become eligible for a
stipend of Rs 600 per month.
There are numerous institutions in India where you can pursue Archaeology. The Institute of Archaeology, in collaboration with the Archaeological Survey of India (Delhi) is the best.
The study involves both theory and training in the laboratories. A lot of stress is laid on field work where students spend time excavating, analysing the relics and monuments, practice procedures of preserving the items and also drawing and photography. Apart from the hard work involved it gives you the opportunity to see what the career has to offer before deciding on a particular area of interest.
Most Archaeologists work at major
universities teaching History, Anthropology, or in the Archaeology departments,
as this is one way to earn a living between research grants and excavations.
When they are not teaching, many Archaeologists are working on digs far from
You can also find work with museums, art restoration, fine arts, etc. The Archaeological Survey of India, which hires many people. You can also find ample opportunities in educational/research institutions.
Money & Other Benefits
Ass. Archaeologist employed by The Archaeological
Survey of India get paid Rs 1,600-2,900 per month.
Ass. Superintending Archaeologists draw Rs 2,000-3,500 per month.
The scale for Superintending Archaeologist is Rs 3,000-4,000 per month.
When you reach the pinnacle of being the Director your salary will escalate to Rs 3,600-5000 per month.
All the above salaries are only the basic pay. But with the recent revision in payscales and allowances the average monthly pay at entry level works out to be around Rs 8,000 per month.
There has been a renewed interest
in the field of Archaeology. As such the scope for archaeologists in India has
Archaeology is often paired with Anthropology. Archaeology is the study of entire cultures and societies while Anthropology is the study of the development of people within societies. While drawing their conclusions, Anthropologists rely heavily on the work of Archaeologists. Individuals who no longer wish to be Archaeologists may join any of the various disciplines, for example, become Historians, Linguists, or Surveyors.
Have you ever been to a museum and been fascinated by the manner in which ancient treasures and artifacts have been preserved? Do you take great pride in India's historical and cultural background? Well then you can preserve this interest by becoming a curator!
Archeologist will go looking for an artifact and a curator will interpret it and preserve it. Say a wooden toy found buried deep in the ground. As a curator you will decide if it belongs to the Mohanjodaro era or the Chandragupta period or if someone just left it there last spring. You will study the intricate patterns on the toy and theorise as to the kind of tools used by people in those days. Your findings will paint the overall picture of life during those times. Curators collect, maintain, and protect objects of historical and aesthetic importance primarily in museums, libraries, and private collections. They are responsible for the safety and proper presentation of the works. It is the curator's job to document each piece of art that comes in to the museum. This means pictures have to be taken, piece evaluated and described and any damages that the piece might have, have to be recorded. For this, it is necessary to diagnoise the causes of damage or deterioration and decide on appropriate treatment. All the restoration work has to be painstakingly recorded both in writing and through photographs and the treatment administered should be reversible if the need arises. The work also includes archiving these artifacts and maintaining accurate records. You will ensure their safety and preserve them for future generations to see. If that's not all, you will shop around and acquire relevant artifacts and also verify their authenticity. Research is invariably a part of this profession. In these cash strapped times, you will also have to don the marketing mantle and arrange for funds from the government and private parties. A museum sees people both children and adults, from different backgrounds, each one seeking information of a different kind. As a curator you have to constantly evaluate the different antiquities that come into the museum both in terms of their historical value as well as how they should be presented to the common man. Appropriate display of the object is also the work of the curator. For a good display the object should be studied thoroughly in terms of its historical significance and interpreted correctly. This calls for a lot of research and teamwork. Curators' duties also include making sure that climate and pest control issues are seen to, and at times, overseeing research on collection pieces to make certain the integrity of the piece is maintained (such as dating tests for fossils or x-ray analysis of paintings to determine origin).
The varied and wide-ranging duties of a curator require someone with a mind attuned to details. Another facet of the curator's job is educating the public about the objects and publicising their existence. Most literature one receives at a museum is written by a curator. So excellent written communication skills will come handy. You also need to have good research skills. You will be spending a lot of time working on one particular aspect of a project. Loads of patience. In this field you can't afford to be accident-prone as some of the stuff that you will handle may be worth million of rupees! If you have good negotiating skills you will be an asset to your museum when exchange of artifacts with other museums comes into the picture. Apart from an extensive knowledge of history and art, it is useful to have a basic understanding of chemistry, restoration techniques, museum studies, and even physics and public relations. Curators must have basic skills in aesthetic design, organizational behavior, business, fundraising, and publicity. You need to have a master's degree in Museology or Museum Science. These are offered at select institutes such as National Museology Institute of Delhi, MS University, Baroda, etc or Master's in a relevant subject say History or Anthropology.
There is scope for all kinds of people in a museum. If you are academic and research oriented you can work with objects. The more outgoing types with good communication skills can interact with the public dishing out information about the objects. The entry point into a museum is usually as a senior curatorial assistant. Job involves overseeing the day-to-day functioning of the museum, looking after the artifacts, etc. As you grow in experience, you will be involved in the various projects that the museum is involved in. The next level is that of assistant curator and then a curator. You may be required to go into the field to the excavation sites to assist archaeologists. At a senior level, you will be involved in research and developing expertise in a particular area say weapons or across a broad era. Eventually you are required to be a leading authority on the subject of your specialisation. When that happens your opinion will be sought after the world over. You can always take up a teaching job and even write a book. Freelancing for private collectors is another lucrative option.
Money & Other Benefits
Most of the museums in India are government-owned. Your salary structure will be along the lines of a college professor, which going by the current scale is not bad. Starting salaries are in the range of Rs 6,000 - 8000 and can work its way up to Rs 22,000 a month. More than money it is the recognition of peers that most curators crave for.
Career Prospects There is a resource crunch as far as museums in India are concerned. Also most museums are in a state of neglect. So be prepared for hard times ahead. Of course if you land yourself a job handling the Indian heritage section at the London museum then its all rosy from then on!
Are you one of the very few who actually read History regularly and not just before the exam? Are you fascinated by the way people of Mahen-Jo-Daro and Harappa lived or the development of civilisation at the banks of the river Nile? Do you get excited about the prospects of finding out a lost empire somewhere below our feet? Did you say yes? But would how about doing it for a living? If you think you can, then you have a good career option. Become a historian.
Historians trace our past. They are involved in collecting evidence of the past, studying and describing past civilizations, societies, culture, life style, customs, values, warfare, technology, and economy. They find out about how human beings lived through the ages since the beginning of its origin. They also study political systems, wars, administrative systems, and civil systems of different dynasties and empires.
Historians identify and study various evidences like artifacts, architectural relics, remnants of monuments, remnants of buildings, old coins, fossils, ancient books, inscription on stones, rocks, temples, idols of God, metal plates, cave drawings by ancient men, remnants of past civilisations, and records of historical events. They analyze the evidence and draw a conclusion about the events that had occurred in the past.
As a historian, you can specialise in various areas like Ancient History (deals with pre-historic age and the early civilization generally from 5000 BC to 1000 AD), Medieval History (deals with history of the middle age generally from 1000 AD to 1600 AD), and Modern History (deals with history of post 16th Century AD). There are other options available like American history, Islamic history, European history, and History of India's freedom movement.
You can also specialise in various occupational areas like Archeology, Epigraphy, Numismatics, Archival science, etc.
Archaeologists identify historical site, excavate, study, analyze, interpret, and preserve historical remains of the ancient civilizations and remnants of the past and develop detailed profiles of past civilisations. They tell us how people lived in the past, technology used by them, their culture, their food habits, the utensils used by the people, the clothes and accessories used by them, their societies, and other relevant facts. They draw a clear picture of the past, which help us to understand it better.
Numismatists analyze the coins recovered from archeological ruins. Rulers of the past used to produce coins bearing inscription. Inscription of many types are found. For example, the visage of the king, a picture depicting an important incident, the period of one's dynasty, visage of one's beloved queen or child, visage of God, etc. Numismatists analyze the inscription to find out about the history behind the coins. For example, an inscription of Shiva found on the coins of Maurya period suggests that God Shiva used to be worshipped during the rules of the Maurya. Existence of a country's coin in another country suggests that those two countries had some trade or cultural links.
Epigraphists are also involved in study of inscriptions but they specialise in inscription on various materials like stone, metal plaques, walls of cave, walls of ancient temples, monuments other than coin. The epigraphists study inscriptions and analyse to find out the history.
Archivists are concerned with manuscripts and other types of historical records. They study books and other documents of the past, which are excellent sources for finding out the history.
Museologists are involved with forms and nature of museum collection, restoration of the collection whenever necessary, conservation of the collection, exhibition, and maintenance of museums.
As a historian, you will mainly work in academic environment as researcher. Jobs in museums and historical survey organisations are very few. As a researcher, you will be involved in study and research. There are scopes for field trips also if you are an archeologist, numismatist, or epigraphist.
If you are an archeologist, you may have to live in unfriendly and foreign environment for some time in excavation work or field trips. Often archeological excavation or related work is carried out in places far away from city or even villages. You will have opportunities to travel to foreign lands for archeological work or for studies.
History is mainly an academic career and as in other such careers, you will be involved in studies throughout your life. So you must have a keen interest in studies and of course in History. You should have an academic orientation and be prepared to acquire higher qualifications.
History also needs you write a lot. So you got to have good written communication skills. You should have an excellent memory to remember facts and dates. Moreover, historical research need long hours and days. So you must have patience and perseverance.
Academic qualification wise, you will need at least an MA in History/Archeology/related area or a post graduate diploma in Archeology to get an entry level job in History related fields. You can also get an entry level job in teaching with your MA degree.
But if you want a really successful and rewarding career, then you must obtain a Ph.D in History/Archeology. If you are a lecturer in a university department or a college, you will need a Ph.D for promotion to higher posts. You will also do well if you go for post-doctoral fellowships at universities in UK or USA.
* University departments and colleges
* Archeological Survey of India as Epigraphic Assistant, Curator, Technical Assistant, Archeologist depending on your specialization
* Historical research organizations like Indian Council for Historical Research as Technical Assistant, Research Associate, Research Fellow, Archivists, etc.
* Nationally important libraries and documents centre like National Archives as an Assistant Archivist.
* Museums as Technical Assistants, Assistant curator, etc.
Money & Other Benefits
After your MA, if you join teaching, you will be paid about Rs 12,000 - 14,000 a month to begin with. If you join a university department as a research fellow, then you will get about Rs 6,000 a month. In other jobs, you are paid in the range of Rs 5,000 - 7,000 per month in the beginning.
If you join in research positions after your Ph.D, then you will be paid in the range of Rs 12,000 - 14,000 a month. As of the present scale of salary, the maximum you can earn in all these jobs is Rs 25,000 a month as a Director of an organisation. However, the salary scale is likely to be revised very soon.
There is not much to say about future prospects but academic and research jobs are gradually becoming very lucrative in India in line with the trends in developed countries like USA. If you venture abroad to USA or UK, then your career can become very exciting as the work as a historian there has become technology and tool oriented. Fields like Archeology, Archival Science offer good opportunities. Getting a good job in India is very competitive as the number of opportunities is very limited.
Sociology is the study of social life, social change, social causes and consequences of human behavior. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organizations, and societies, and how people interact within these contexts.
Since all human behavior is social,
the subject matter of sociology ranges from the intimate family to the hostile
mob; from organized crime to religious cults; from the divisions of race,
gender and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture; and from the
sociology of work to the sociology of sports. In fact, few fields have such
broad scope and relevance for research, theory, and application of knowledge.
· research social interaction and social issues such as ethnic relations, gender and social inequalities
· conduct surveys, interviews, field observations and other investigations into society
· analyse and interprets information
· develop and tests theories about society
· write reports on research findings
· may advise government, businesses or local authorities on social policy
· may teach sociology
Many students choose sociology because they see it as a broad liberal arts base f or professions such as education, social work, and counseling. Sociology provides a rich fund of knowledge that directly pertains to each of these fields.
Sociologists can specialize in families, adolescence, or children; the urban community; education; health and medicine; aging and the life course; work and occupations; the environment, science, and technology; economics, social inequality, and social class; race relations, ethnicity, and minorities; sex and gender; sports; culture and the arts; politics, the military, peace, and war; crime, delinquency, law, and justice; social change and social movements; and any other area of human organization. College and university courses reflect these interests, as well as research methods and theory building.
Some of the most fascinating subjects explored by sociologists include:
Sex and gender: Do men and women have different hiring, employment, and promotion experiences? This would be a research question for a sociologist specializing in how sex and gender affect the workplace.
Medical sociology: How is AIDS transmitted (and thus prevented) in different subgroups of the population? How has public opinion about AIDS shifted? These are the concerns of medical sociologists.
Organizations and occupations: Which management styles increase productivity and worker satisfaction would engage the attention of an organizational sociologist.
Family: Are children of divorced
parents more likely to divorce, or to reject marriage themselves? What factors
predict whether abused children would fare better in foster care or reunited
with their birth family? These would be possible subjects for a family
Sociologists work in offices, libraries and their own homes. They may work for community groups, schools, polytechnics, universities, government departments or local government. They may travel locally to different clients and to carry out research. They may also travel to conferences overseas.
Sociologists need skills in
analysing and interpreting information, planning and organisational ability,
and an eye for detail. They also need research skills, written and oral
communication skills, and an ability to think critically about the social
Sociologists need to know about research methods, theories of society and social issues and differences in gender and cultural and religious beliefs. They also need to know about up-to-date information and research.
Sociologists need to be accurate, enquiring, adaptable, culturally sensitive, open-minded and imaginative.
Education wise there are a number of possibilities:
One, you can acquire an MA in Sociology to make a beginning. You will do better with a Ph. D.
Two, you can have a MA/M.Sc. in Psychology and later do a Ph. D in Sociology.
Three, you can have a MSW (Master of Social Work) to get a job. You will of course do better if you acqu ire a Ph. D after MSW.
Four, you can have a MA/ M. Sc. in Anthropology and then do a Ph. D in Sociology.
Five, you can be a Master/ MA in Population Studies and then do a Ph. D in Sociology.
Six, you can have an MA in Political Science or International Relations or Defence Studies and then a Ph. D in Sociology.
People with degrees in sociology
may enter many careers, and the options are increasing.
· Sociologists teach in colleges and universities, advising students, conducting research, and publishing their work.
· Sociologists enter the corporate, non-profit, and government worlds as directors of research, policy analysts, consultants, human resource managers, and programme managers.
· Practicing sociologists with advanced degrees may be called research analysts, survey researchers, gerontologists, statisticians, urban planners, community developers, criminologists, or demographers.
· Some MA and PhD sociologists obtain specialized training to become counselors, therapists, or program directors in social service agencies.
Today, sociologists embark upon literally hundreds of career paths. Although teaching and conducting research remains the dominant activity among sociologists today, other forms of employment are growing both i n number and significance. In some sectors, sociologists work closely with economists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, social workers, and others, reflecting a growing appreciation of sociology's contributions to interdisciplinary analysis and action.
Money & Other Benefits
In academic positions, i.e., in
research and teaching, one gets about Rs. 12,000 a month in the beginning to
about Rs. 25,000 a month in senior positions.
In industries, though the opportunities are very few, a Sociologist can get about Rs. 12,000 a month in the beginning and move up to Rs. 50,000 or more a month in senior positions.
In Governments and Government agencies, one can get about Rs. 10,000 a month in the beginning, moving up to about Rs. 30,000 a month in senior positions.
In NGOs, one can get anything between Rs. 6,000 - 8,000 a month in the beginning moving up to Rs. 25,000 a month or even more in a senior level.
The future appears bright for sociologists. The next
century may be the most exciting and critical period in the field's history.
There is an increased awareness to understand, improve or solve problems like
alcoholism or unemployment, and problems that affect societies, like ethnic
conflict or environmental pollution. Some of the best employment prospects may
be in policy research and administration, in clinical and applied sociological
practice, as well as in the traditional areas of teaching and basic research.
During the last part of this century, the demand for college professors should increase.
Since its subject matter is intrinsically fascinating, sociology offers valuable preparation for careers in journalism, politics, public relations, business, or public administration--fields that involve investigative skills and working with diverse groups.
All this makes for an optimistic employment picture for s ociology graduates. Because of its appeal as a career that is intrinsically fascinating and allows one to contribute to the common good, many talented people are drawn to sociology. The field remains exciting and competitive.