ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
PRODUCTION & INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
BIO - ENGINEERING
MINING ENGINEER & METALLURGIST
An Engineer’s work touches every aspect of our lives. It is concerned with finding solutions to practical problems encountered in industry and industrialised society in general. In doing this, the chartered engineers must apply scientific principles, theories and methods to the analysis and solution to these problems. They may cover the construction of our urban environment, roads, buildings and factories; or the production, installation and maintenance of plant and equipment, machine tools, petro-chemical plants and motor vehicles; or the provision of essential services like gas, electricity, water etc.
As engineering covers such a vast field it is essential to specialise in a specific branch. Some of these are :
Computer Science and Engineering
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Electronics and Communication Engineering
Metallurgical and Mining Engineering
Aerospace engineers are concerned with the design, analysis, construction, development, testing and manufacture of commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft.
The study of aerospace engineering offers specialization in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, propulsion, structures, celestial machines, acoustics and guidance and control systems. They may also specialize in aerospace product e.g., commercial transport, helicopters, spacecrafts or rockets.
The course encompasses study of fluid dynamics, material science, structural analysis, propulsion and electronics.
This includes a wide range of area products such as engines, electrical/electronic equipment, guided weapons etc. There is also specialization in certain fields, such as aerodynamics. The main thrust in this area is on design and development, which extends even to space and satellite research. Some of the possible career opportunities are as Aero Space Engineer, Aeronautical Engineer.
The BE/B. Tech. programme stresses the fundamentals of propulsion, electronics, automatic control guidance, theory of aerodynamics, material science, structural analysis, and fluid dynamics.
It covers the design, production and maintenance of farm machinery, buildings and field engineering (irrigation, water supply, drainage, soil erosion etc.) This basically implies looking after the mechanization of agricultural activities for the smooth functioning and efficient increase in food productivity.
The course consists of a study of subjects such as the basic physical engineering and agricultural sciences, soil conservation, drainage methods, irrigation practices, farm machinery and dairy engineering.
Deals mainly with the design, planning, manufacture as well as the repair, maintenance and up-gradation of all moving vehicles such as cars, trucks, motorcycles, scooters etc. The work includes at time, the dismantling and overhauling of vehicles, and at other times the designing of new models. Keeping in view their performance, capacity, durability and appearance as well as the cost of both manufacture and maintenance.
The course curriculum is designed to teach students all aspects of moving vehicles, their construction, repair and maintenance.
Deals with the design, installation and maintenance of plants of large-scale processes in oil, chemical, pharmaceutical and allied industries. This could also cover various fields of chemical technology in mineral based industries, petrochemical plants, synthetic fibres and even petroleum refining plants.
The focus of the BE/B. Tech programmes in Chemical Engineering is on Industrial Chemistry, Polymer Technology, Polymer Processing, Polymer Testing, Polymer Synthesis etc.
This involves the design and construction of roads, bridges, railways etc. and the erection of large buildings. Civil engineers are responsible for planning and designing a project and having it constructed to the required scale. Some of the possible career opportunities are as Builder, City Planner, Architecture, Civil Engineer, Irrigation Engineer, Planner
The course curriculum includes the study of all the basic engineering sciences and is designed to introduce the students to a variety of problems encountered by civil engineers such as : structures, foundation, construction, hydraulics and environmental engineering, works management and cost, transportation engineering, irrigation engineering etc.
Includes work with computers, which are today, the most important office automation products. It includes the designing of the computer and its control systems (the hardware) and also develops computer software. The engineers are constantly engaged in improving the end product and building state-of-the-art equipment such as super computers, multimedia machines, graphic terminals, laser and inkjet printings, pentium based machines etc.
The academic programmes consists of subjects like systems software, software for scientific and industrial applications, as also training in hardware development.
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
This is divided into heavy current (electrical machinery; generating stations and distribution systems) and light current (telecommunications, radar, computers etc.) With the increasing demand for electrical energy, the development in audio and video communication systems, and the automation in industry, electrical engineers have become indispensable to society today. However, the electronics or communication engineers work with devices that use extremely small amounts of power such as micro processors, fibre optics etc.
For an Electrical engineer, the academic programme lays stress on a deep understanding of electrical networks and devices of electromagnetic field theory, electrical energy converters, electrical energy distribution systems etc. For an electronics or communication engineer the BE/B. Tech programme focuses electronic network and devices, subjects such as electromagnetic field theory, computer fundamentals as also their protection, and communication and control systems.
This includes the design, manufacture and management of energy plants in the coal, oil, gas, electricity and nuclear sectors.
Deals with the design, manufacture and operation of ships engines and machinery's. This also includes the supervision of engine crew involved in operating the machines, and checking for smooth functioning of all steam engines, electric motors, propulsive engines etc.
At MERI, candidates are given a knowledge of fairly high standards in fundamental engineering sciences, specialized knowledge of theoretical and practical marine engineering, and also a basic knowledge of social sciences and humanities. Apart from modern marine technology, the use of basic tools, workshop technology, and practical training in the power houses - how to operate, overhaul and test auxiliary power plants units - is also imparted.
This is the largest and oldest branches of the profession. It is concerned with the design, development, manufacture, operation and maintenance of many types of plants, machinery and mechanical products.
In addition to the basic engineering sciences, the programme in mechanical engineering lays emphasis on the analysis and synthesis involved in the design, manufacture and operation of prime movers, pumps, compressors, machine tools, mass production technique etc.
Covers the planning of extraction methods, use of equipment and the supervision and control of operations in underground and opencast coal, ore and metalliferous mining. This includes laying out the plans, and devising shafts, inclines or quarries for the safe extraction of these resources, whether they be coal, petroleum, metallic or non-metallic minerals from under the earth.
The academic programme includes not just a grounding in basic engineering sciences, but also a fair amount of theoretical and practical training in the different aspect of mining engineering, metallurgy and geology.
PRODUCTION & INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
It deals with planning, managing and maintaining manufacturing processes. Production and Industrial Engineers aim at higher productivity by adopting integrated design and efficient planning and operative systems.
A strong base in computer applications is an important element of the course content which facilitates component production, process planning, production planning etc. Furthermore, systems engineering, industrial automation, process engineering and management are also taught.
It deals with the design, construction and maintenance of all type of structures, buildings and dams including their form and foundations. Each engineering branch tends to be based on similar fundamental engineering sciences. Expertise from one field can invariably be applied to another. It is therefore, possible to gain experience in several branches.
This specialization deals with the design, development, fabrication and testing of new electronic circuitry incorporating the latest in chip technology. Micro-electronic engineering finds employment in the aerospace industry, medical electronic industry, computer industry and telecommunication sector.
BIO - ENGINEERING
Bio-engineering is an inter disciplinary study of Bio-chemistry, chemical engineering genetics and microbiology with good employment prospects in the fields of agriculture, energy, environment, medicine and industry particularly biotechnology, application for product and process development.
This field involves the study of Physics, solid state electronics, cryogenics, material sciences, laser technology and applied nuclear sciences. It has maximum employment scope in the field of research and design in industry as well as research institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) etc.
The study of information systems is concerned with
the technologies involved in gathering ,processing ,storing, distributing,
& using large volumes of data typically found in financial or retail
systems. Engineering in Information Systems considers both how the knowledge to
be held by a system is best modelled and represented in a database and
how such knowledge is used to support strategic and operational business
decisions. Such courses aim at developing a thorough understanding of the wider
environment within which information systems operate,how computer systems are
used , the ability to translate subject world requirements into computer
based technical artefacts through the application of formalised and
rigorous engineering principles.
Software Engineering is concerned with the
development of complex and critical software systems , often embedded in the
other engineered products, such as telephone exchanges which comprise a number
of subsystems of which software is just one.
It provides an understanding of all the basic techniques for software production and management of the production processes, together with a detailed study of how softeware interacts with hardware.
As many systems can be constructed in either software or by using hardware devices , critical decisions must be made about implementing system functions in either software or hardware.
Automobile engineering is a specialised branch of mechanical engineering. You will dream up new vehicles and even new modes of transport. You will design them keeping in mind factors like performance, economy, comfort, maintenance, environmental impact and last but not the least - looks. You will work closely with test drivers to ensure that the handling and feel of the ride is the best that money can buy. You will lend your expertise to upgrade existing models and work out which parts need to be replaced with new, improved ones.
Innovation is the name of the game here and you will have to think up of new goodies that you can add to your vehicle. These accessories may range from airbags, GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) Systems and HUD (Heads Up Display) Systems to simple things like additional cup holders and a better stereo speaker positioning. You will study the latest technological advancements in manufacturing, effect of the environment and road conditions on vehicles to new aerodynamic shapes. In short you will help make the world go around-faster, cleaner and better.
In workshops and garages you will service vehicles and check their parts for wear and tear. You will be working with mechanics and lead them in dismantling, overhauling and making modifications to vehicles. Your role here will be more as a trouble-shooter. Mostly you will be working with your hands - a truly hands on career!
If you specialise in any particular area you could use your knowledge to come up with new ideas and solutions to problems plaguing cars for decades. For instance, if engines are your forte then maybe you can come up with an engine that is more fuel-efficient or one, which runs on alternative fuels such as methanol or even water! In such research and development labs you will use high-end equipment to test out your theories. Most often then not you will be going abroad to learn new concepts and techniques and teach the same here.
At senior levels, you will be called upon to look after the production and quality control in massive assembly plants. Your job profile will also include marketing the finished product.
You need to be mad about cars,
bikes and the likes. Only then you will not be bored to the death learning the
timing mechanisms of different engines.
You need to have a good foundation in mathematics and physics. Good logical and problem solving skills are essential. You need to like working with tools, drawing complex sketches and conceptualising structures. You also need to be patient and perseverant. Vehicular problems are not solved overnight you know! This is a continuous learning process and you should be able to learn on the job as well. Therefore the ability to grasp concepts quickly and good communication skills is essential. Most of all you need to be a team player.
Education wise the best entry point is B.E in automobile engineering. You can pursue this after class 12. Alternatively you can do your diploma in automobile engineering after class 10 and then do your B. E. < BR>
You can also do your B.E in mechanical engineering and then a master's in automobile engineering. Alternatively you can do your masters in mechanical engineering with automobiles as your area of specialisation.
If you do your B.Sc. with Physics/Chemistry/Mathematics you can go on to do your B.Tech in automobiles. After doing your M.Sc. in Physics you could do your M.Tech in mechanical and automation technology.
In these courses you will learn:
Basic of Computer Science
Mathematics Fluid Mechanics
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Industrial Management & Road Transport Organisation
Automobile Chassis and Engines
You will mainly be employed in automobile manufacturing plants such as Maruti Udyog Ltd., Telco, Fiat, etc. Here you can be involved in any of the following duties:
Research, design, development and
manufacture of vehicles
Manufacture of forgings and castings
Vendor development and materials management
Marketing and sales
With modern vehicles increasingly becoming sophisticated engineers are needed to over see and supervise the repair. You will gain employment at big garages and factory service stations as managers.
After considerable experience you can open your own garage or workshop repairing old vehicles and modifying new ones as per the customers' wishes.
You can also work as surveyors for insurance companies provided you have a licence from the central government. You can also freelance as a writer for technical journals, car magazines and websites.
Money & Other Benefits
Starting salaries are in the range
of Rs 7,000-9,000 per month for degree holders and Rs 3,500-6,000 per month for
diploma holders who are taken in as trainees.
Customer support engineers make anywhere between Rs 6,000-10,000 and as service managers take home around Rs 10,000-2,000
With around 5-7 years experience your pay packet salary will touch the Rs 20,000-30,000.
Marketing pays much better because of the fat commissions attached to you pay packet.
If you undertake customisation projects, you can charge any where between Rs 15,000 - 1,50,000 per project.
The slow down in the automobile industry wordwide has had its effect in the Indian automobile industry as well. But the growth has remained steady and is set to continue. Many multinationals like Daewoo, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai, and Fiat have entered the market and are offering state-of-the-art vehicles. Also the dismal number of models in India as compared to the west has been a boon for the customisation industry.
Other new avenues that you can explore as an automobile engineer are vehicles running on alternative forms of fuel such as Propane, Methanol, Ethanol, Hydrogen and even electricity and solar power. Then there is the issue of passenger as well as pedestrian safety. These remain the challenges for the automobile engineers in the new century.
Aerospace Engineers work in one of the most technologically advanced branches of engineering. They design, construct and test aircraft, missiles, satellites, rockets, spacecrafts… anything that flies. Besides this, they are also involved in researching new materials, engines, body shapes and structures. This job is not just about science, it's also about creativity. You will not only give wings to your imagination but also make it fly.
You will conceptualise a project, say an Indian lunar mission. You will be involved in all steps from the drawing board to the planning committee to the implementation team. You will think of various designs most suitable for a spacecraft for this kind of mission. You will then iron out your differences with other engineers and come to a consensus. Then comes testing a smaller model of this spacecraft in a wind tunnel and authorising its airworthiness. The final stage involves building the aircraft, testing it all over again and finally handing it over.
But your job will not end at that. You will act as a consultant to the mission and trouble-shoot any problems that may arise. Pretty cool stuff for an engineer!
You need to have good mathematical
and logical skills. You also need to be good at organising. You will be working
in teams of cross-sectional skills and as such you must be able to get on well
with people at all levels. You should be able to keep calm under pressure and
be a problem solver. You should also like working with tools, drawing complex
sketches and thinking up forms and structures.
This is a field where you are required to constantly update yourself with the latest innovations and technologies. So be prepared to read a lot. The ability to express one's ideas clearly to others comes in handy too. You should also be creative and analytical with an eye for detail.
You need to be a BE/B.Tech. in aerospace engineering. There are also diploma courses, which you can pursue after 10+2 but you will need to complete your degree before you get a good job. After graduation, you could pursue an M.Tech. or Ph.D. in aeronautics. Then there are exams conducted by the AeSI (Aeronautical Society Of India). This exam is considered equivalent to a Bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering.
You will study subjects like Principles of Flight, Aerodynamics, Aircraft structure, Propulsion, Avionics, Electronics, Metrology, as well as Airworthiness Regulations and Air Traffic Control.
You will then have to choose an area of specialisation namely, aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, etc. You could also specialise in aerospace products viz., commercial transport, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecrafts, missiles or rockets.
The Indian aerospace industry is
very small as compared to the one in Europe or the United States. In India you
will most likely be employed in government owned enterprises such as ISRO
(Indian Space Research Organisation), DRDO (Defence Research and Development
Organisation), HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.), NAL (National Aeronautics
Labs), etc. A lot of prestige is associated with working in these organisations
and they attract the top brains in the country.
You could also work for airlines like Air India, Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, etc. Openings also exist in civil aviation departments as well as the Indian Air Force.
There is no dearth of opportunities for those who wish to work abroad. In fact, a large percentage of engineers at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States) are Indians. The same is the case with aerospace giants like Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, etc.
Money & Other Benefits
As a trainee Aerospace Engineer you will earn about Rs 25,000 or more per month, if you get into an airlines. Research organisations, aircraft developing and manufacturing organisations and others pay around Rs 12,000 per month.
After a couple of years experience, you could be easily be making around Rs 80,000 a month. Plus you get all the added benefits reserved for government servants.
The airline industry is always looking for new aeroplanes that are bigger, better, more economical and off late more environment friendly. That is how the Boeing 707 developed into the 747 and now into the 747-400. But now airlines want new generation planes able to take thrice as many passengers at many times the speed of sound. The race is on to develop this next generation airline. Which means that aerospace engineers are a lot in demand.
Space is another booming business with the need to launch communication and weather satellites into various orbits. Space vacations may become a reality sooner than we think, thanks to the landmark space flight taken by US millionaire Dennis Tito. Defence as usual is an industry which constantly requires new and better technologies and the Indian private sector is all set to set shop now that the government has thrown open this sector to private participation.
Biomedical engineering may be
defined as the application of engineering to medicine.
Biomedical engineers apply the concepts of biology as well as physics and chemistry to develop products and devices, which are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
A Biomedical Engineer uses
traditional engineering expertise to analyze and solve problems in biology and
medicine, providing an overall enhancement of health care. The biomedical
engineer works with other health care professionals including physicians,
nurses, therapists and technicians.
Here are some specialty areas that you can work in the field of Biomedical engineering:
This is the application of electronics and measurement techniques to develop devices used in diagnosis and treatment of disease. You will make newer and better instruments that can look through the body such as X-rays, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) etc. Your work will also involve developing cameras and other devices that will help surgeons get a better look of the body from the inside during operations.
This includes both living tissue and artificial materials used to replace diseased organs. You will find out which living and non-living materials are compatible and make devices that mimic the operations of the organs of the body like an artificial heart. You will also be involved in 'growing' organs from tissues and cells in the laboratory.
Here you will apply mechanics to biological or medical problems. You will study the flow of bodily fluids such as blood. This will help you in deciding the specifications for the various devices such as artificial joint replacements, pacemakers etc.
Cellular and Genetic Engineering
Here you will look at medical problems at the microscopic level. You will develop miniature devices to deliver medicines to precise locations to promote healing or inhibit diseases.
You will apply the principles of Biology and Engineering to develop tissue substitutes to restore, maintain, or improve the function of diseased or damaged human tissues. For example you will use cells from an individual's healthy kidney and put it in the diseased kidney thus causing the growth of new, healthy tissue.
In this field, you will be responsible for developing and maintaining computer databases of medical instruments and equipment records in hospitals. You will also be involved in the testing, purchase and use of sophisticated medical instruments.
Here you will use engineering for the understanding of the function of bones, joints and muscles, and for the design of artificial joint replacements. Orthopedic bioengineers analyze the friction, lubrication and wear and tear of natural joints to develop artificial limbs just as good as the real thing.
Bone Implant Technologies
You will research new technologies and materials that will make bone, joint, and tooth implants almost as good as nature's own versions.
You will develop and look after fully programmed robots that will be used in operating rooms for reaching vital organs that may be damaged permanently due to human error.
You will use software tools and specialised imaging equipment to create a digital picture of the inside of a patient's body. This will help surgeons determine the best possible way to go about the operation.
Specialized Laser Technology
You will develop new laser technologies for applications in routine and specialised operations, dental surgery as well as in skin relate disorders.
Rehabilitation engineers enhance the capabilities and improve the quality of life for individuals with physical impairments. You will be involved in the development of home, workplace and transportation modifications like motorised wheelchairs that enhance seating, positioning and mobility for those with physical disabilities.
* An interest in both biology and mathematics
* Organising ability
* Spatial reasoning skills
* Excellent analytical and logical reasoning skills
* Good logical and mental ability, problem solving skills
* Ability to grasp concepts quickly
* Ability to understand, comprehend, memorise and recall scientific theories,
facts and hypothesis.
* Investigative and critical thinking
* Patience and cool temperament
The best way to go about it would be to do your B.E in Biomedical Engineering. You can also do your B. E in Electrical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Medical Engineering Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering or Chemical Engineering and do a postgraduate course in Biomedical engineering. You can also do this course after completing your graduation in Medical Electronics or Biotechnology. B.E in other streams can opt for a postgraduate course in Medical Technology, which is also considered equivalent to a postgraduate course in Biomedical Engineering.
Alternatively you can pursue an MBBS degree and then go on to do a postgraduate degree in Biomedical Engineering/ Medical Engineering/Medical Technology.
You will work in
* Companies manufacturing equipment used in hospitals and diagnostic centres. Here you may work in the research and development (R&D), manufacturing, quality control and testing, installation, maintenance or sales and marketing departments.
* Large hospitals to select, handle and maintain sophisticated equipment. You will also build customized devices for special needs.
* Institutions involved in
* Government agencies where you will be involved in product testing and safety, as well as establishing safety standards for devices.
Money & Other Benefits
In companies manufacturing medical
equipment- Rs 20,000 - 30 ,000 per month
In private hospitals and clinics- Rs 15,000 -25,000 per month
In research and teaching institutions - Rs 18,000 -25,000 per month
In government agencies - Rs 16,000- 22,000 per month
Biomedical engineering is one of the hottest careers these days along with Bioinformatics and Biotechnology. The opening of the insurance sector has indirectly helped the healthcare industry. Anticipating the high quality medical care, which will be made available to millions of Indians, there has been a steady demand for bio medical engineers in India. There has been an increasing use of the combination of medicine with cutting edge technology in the treatment of diseases. More and more doctors are utilizing the power of computers is and other devices such as MRI scans, sonography devices, etc. The field of healthcare is all set to witness a period of sustained technological growth. If you are keen on research work and developing cutting edge technologies then pursuing a postgraduate course abroad is your best bet.
Broadcast and sound technicians install, test, repair, set up, and operate the electronic equipment used to record and transmit radio and television programmes, cable programmes, and motion pictures. They work with television cameras, microphones, tape recorders, lighting, sound effects, transmitters, antennas, and other equipment.
Some broadcast and sound technicians
even produce movie sound tracks in motion picture production studios, control
the sound of live events, such as concerts, or record music in a recording
In the control room of a radio or television broadcasting studio, sound technicians operate equipment that regulates the signal strength, clarity, and range of sounds and colors of recordings or broadcasts. They also operate control panels to select the source of the material.
Technicians may switch from one
camera or studio to another, from film to live programming, or from network to
local programming. By means of hand signals and, in television, telephone
headsets, they give technical directions to other studio personnel.
Broadcast and sound technicians in small stations perform a variety of duties. In large stations and at the networks, technicians are more specialized, although job assignments may change from day to day. The terms 'operator,' 'engineer,' and 'technician' often are used interchangeably to describe these jobs.
Transmitter operators monitor and
log outgoing signals and operate transmitters. Maintenance technicians set up,
adjust, service, and repair electronic broadcasting equipment.
Audio control engineers regulate volume and sound quality of television broadcasts, while Video control engineers regulate their fidelity, brightness, and contrast.
Recording engineers operate and maintain video and sound recording equipment. They may operate equipment designed to produce special effects, such as the illusions of a bolt of lightning or a police siren.
Sound mixers or rerecording mixers produce the sound track of a movie, television, or radio programme. After filming or recording, they may use a process called dubbing to insert sounds.
Field technicians set up and
operate broadcasting portable field transmission equipment outside the studio.
Television news coverage requires so much electronic equipment, and the
technology is changing so rapidly, that many stations assign technicians
exclusively to news.
Chief engineers, transmission engineers, and broadcast field supervisors supervise the technicians who operate and maintain broadcasting equipment.
Broadcast and sound technicians generally work indoors in pleasant surroundings. However, those who broadcast news and other programmes from locations outside the studio may work outdoors in all types of weather.
Technicians doing maintenance may climb poles or antenna towers, while those setting up equipment do heavy lifting. Technicians in large stations and the networks usually work long hours under great pressure to meet broadcast deadlines, and occasionally work overtime. Those who work on motion pictures may be on a tight s chedule to finish according to contract agreements.
The best way to prepare for a broadcast and sound technician job is to obtain technical degree in engineering or electronics. This is particularly true for those who hope to advance to supervisory positions or jobs at large stations or the networks.
In the movie industry people are hired
as apprentice and work their way up. Employers in usually hire experienced
freelance technicians on a project-by-project basis. Reputation and
determination are important in getting jobs.
Broadcast and sound technicians must have manual dexterity and an aptitude for working with electrical, electronic, and mechanical systems and equipment. They also need good people skills, analytical skills, problem-solving skills and an eye for detail.
They should be patient, thorough,
safety-conscious, able to work well under pressure, and able to communicate
well with their clients. Good eyesight (with or without glasses) is essential.
They should have normal colour vision, as many wires are colour-coded.
Experienced technicians can become supervisory technicians or chief engineers. A Master's degree in engineering is needed to become chief engineer at a large TV station.
· Control the sound of live events such as Femina Miss India, music concerts etc.
· Work in a radio station
· Work in a recording studio where you record for television shows, advertisements, etc.
· In the production depart in television stations
· Produce movie sound tracks in motion picture production studios
People seeking beginning jobs as radio and television broadcast technicians are expected to face strong competition in major metropolitan areas, where the number of qualified job seekers exceeds the number of openings. There, stations seek highly experienced personnel. Prospects for entry-level positions generally are better in small cities and towns for beginners with appropriate training.
Beginners learn skills on the job from experienced technicians and supervisors. They often begin their careers in small stations and, once experienced, move o n to larger ones. Large stations usually only hire technicians with experience.
Money & Other Benefits
Television stations usually pay
higher salaries than radio stations; commercial broadcasting usually pays more
than public broadcasting; and stations in large markets pay more than those in
Starting salaries are in the range of Rs 6000-8000. With two to three year's experience in handling sophisticated equipment and software it could move to Rs 12,000-15,000 a month.
Television stations employ, on
average, many more technicians than do radio stations. Technician jobs in
television are located in virtually all cities, whereas jobs in radio are also
found in many small towns.
An increase in the number of programming hours should require additional technicians. However, employment growth in radio and television broadcasting is expected to grow somewhat because of the fast growth in the number of new radio and television stations.
Technicians who know how to install
transmitters will be in demand as television stations replace existing analog
transmitters with digital transmitters. Stations will begin broadcasting in
both analog and digital formats, eventually switching entirely to digital.
Employment in the cable industry should grow because of new products coming to market, such as cable modems, which deliver high speed Internet access to personal computers, and digital set-top boxes, which transmit better sound and pictures, allowing cable operators to offer many more channels than in the past. These new products should cause traditional cable subscribers to sign up for additional services.
Chemical Engineering combines the principles of mathematics, chemistry, physics and biology with engineering practices in order to improve the human environment. Chemical Engineers have long been regarded as the most versatile of all engineers; yet many opportunities exist to specialise in a particular area.
Chemical engineers invent, develop, design, operate and manage processes (conversion of raw materials into finished products) in industries. They play key roles in industries as varied as petroleum, petrochemicals, food, materials, specialty chemicals, power production, environmental control, waste management, and biotechnology. Examples of chemical engineering processes are the refining of crude oil by distillation, production of insulin through a fermentation process and production of catalytic converters for reducing automotive emissions.
Chemical engineers have worked on creating the purple rose that has no thorns, the caramel on a caramel apple, and even your tennis shoes. The chemical engineering profession has improved water and waste system, created new drugs, and drug delivery systems, and improved the crop yields for farmers just to name a few of the challenges.
The chemical engineering profession began as an interface between chemistry and mechanical engineering in the chemical process industry. Some decades ago nearly all chemical engineers were employed there. From the examples above you can see that the principles of chemical engineering can be applied in other industries as well.
Chemical engineers work in
the following areas:
Research engineers work with chemists to develop new ideas and new products. They may come up with a new material or a better way to produce an existing products. The mass production of antibiotics, for example, was made possible by chemical engineers in research.
Design engineers create the process that converts a raw material into a final product. Chemists invented the many synthetic fibers we use today, but chemical engineers designed the plants that produce them at an affordable cost.
Chemical engineers look for ways to improve new or existing processes. The 'greening' of much of the Third World is due to a big reduction in the cost of ammonia production, which made it possible for poorer nations to manufacture this important fertilizer.
Production: < BR>The manufacture of chemicals requires continuous supervision. Is the product of Specified purity? Is the production rate what it should be? Are control instruments performing properly? Is the process as safe as it can be? Production engineers are always answering such questions.
Why isn't our product doing what it is supposed to for our customers? Could our new product be used more economically than current materials? Why did that new paint peel from one house? Sales engineers answer such questions. People skills, as well as technical ability, are very important for these chemical engineers.
Many chemical engineers are promoted to management positions. While less involved in technology, they make policy and business decisions, train new engineers, and solve human, rather than technical, problems. This list is neither complete nor comprehensive. For instance, some chemical engineers work in hospitals to find the best met hod of administering a particular drug to a patient. There is no limit to the kinds of challenging work chemicals engineers do.
Chemical engineers can also work as technical writers, teachers and professors, in fields related to the process industries.
Strong technical ability, communication skills and high motivation are equally important characteristics for a successful engineer in today's competitive and demanding workplace. You need to be a creative problem solver who enjoys great diversity in your work.
In order to qualify as a chemical engineer you need to have a BE/ B.Tech or ME/ M.Tech degree in chemical engineering. There are both degree as well as diploma courses. If you want to make an early beginning you can choose this route. After SSC you can do a 3 year diploma course. After this course you have two options. Join an engineering firm straightaway or enroll for a three year degree programme, which will enhance you job prospects.
There is another way. Instead of
jumping into a diploma after SSC, you could study science all the way up to HSC
and then enroll for a four year degree course in chemical engineering. Both
ways, the number of years equal to six years (10+3+3 or 10+2+4). The degree
awarded will be BE (Bachelor of Engineering) or B.Tech (Bachelor of
The Chemical Engineering curriculum is a strong combination of both theoretical and practical coursework. You first need to build a strong foundation in chemistry, physics, and mathematics. You will then learn to apply this knowledge to the practice of chemical engineering, including heat and mass transfer, unit operations, chemical reaction engineering, process control, modeling and simulation, economics, and plant design.
Petroleum, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies are the traditional employers of chemical engineers. Today, however, increasing numbers of chemical engineers are hired by the pharmaceuticals, healthcare, design and construction, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, food processing, specialty chemicals, microelectronics, electronic and advanced materials, polymers, business services, biotechnology, environmental health and safety industries, rubber, metal, cement, plastic, and aerospace industries. Government agencies, such as the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, also hire chemical engineers. And, more and more chemical engineers are working in biotechnology.
Chemical engineers work in manufacturing, Specifically, chemical engineers improve food processing techniques, and methods of producing fertilizers, to increase the quantity and quality of available food.
Money & Other Benefits
Majority of the chemical engineers
are employed in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. And let me tell you
that these industries pay really good salaries to their employees. All you need
is a bachelor's degree in Chemical engineering.
If you are employed at a chemical plants you start off at Rs 7,500 a month while FMCG companies such as P&G pay between Rs 12,000 - 20,000 a month.
Senior engineers can earn anywhere in between Rs 30,000 - 50,000 a month.
Of course you can always join the teacher's brigade in various schools and colleges. With the introduction of the Fifth Pay Commission, the salaries for teachers are really looking up. Lecturers in colleges get a starting salary of Rs 12,000-13,000 a month.
The manufacturing industries all over the world is currently going through a recession. The scenario is the same in India too. Although there are a few sectors within the manufacturing industries which are doing well, new recruitment is increasingly being frozen or being cut down. Growth of employment is mostly negative. Industry pundits are taking extreme caution in projecting future growth. Chemical engineers are also caught in the recessionary quagmire. Future prospects, at this point of time is uncertain.
But there are a few silver linings. Industries like Bioprocess industry, Food processing, Agrochemicals, Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, Petroleum industries are doing fine and their future outlook is also encouraging. Chemical engineers will find good career opportunities in these fields.
Chemical Engineers will also find career opportunities in Industrial safety, Environment control and quality control functions of various industries. These functions are increasingly becoming key to industrial production. Chemical engineers would do well if they specialise in one of these areas.
Astronauts, dentists, clumsy
dishwashers, and astronomers all depend on ceramic technologists to develop such
varied products as protective tiles for space shuttles, ceramic fillings for
teeth, unbreakable dinner plates, and sophisticated telescope lenses.
Ceramics have applications in virtually any industry, which demands the use of heat-resistant materials. Ceramic technologists are specialists in the study of these materials, their behavior, application, and use.
Many industries now depend on ceramic materials: bricks, cement, tiles, pipe and glass industries in the construction sector; the glassware, pottery, spark plugs industries in the consumer goods sector; electrical insulators, cutting tools and bearings manufactured in industries dealing with industrial products; diodes, capacitors, magnetic materials and computer memory packages in the electronics sector and high temperature tile insulation and composite materials in space technolo gy, ceramic spark plugs used in aerospace industry and nuclear fuel rods for nuclear industry.
Ceramic Technologists are mainly engaged in research, product development, and production engineering. The exact nature of the job will depend upon your area of specialisation and place of employment. If you choose research you will spend much of the day evaluating and planning new projects or consulting with other technologists and company executives.
But at the entry level in a firm that manufactures ceramic products, ceramic technologists work primarily in the laboratory where much of the time is spent running physical or chemical tests on raw materials or finished products and analysing the results.
Ceramic technologists can specialise in whitewares (porcelain and china dinnerware or high voltage electrical insulators), structural materials (brick, tile, and turbine blades), electronic ceramics (magnetics, memory systems, and microwave devices), protective and refractory coatings for met als, glass products, abrasives, and fuel elements for nuclear energy.
Success in this field greatly
depends on your grounding in subjects like Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry.
A background in Physics, Mathematics, and Mathematics, along with a degree in
Ceramic Technology/ Engineering is the preferred qualification to work in the
After your 10th standard examination, opt for Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics in Higher secondary. Then go for the entrance exam to an engineering college for a four-year B.Tech (Ceramics). You can continue studying and opt for M.Tech (one and a half years).
You can study Ceramic Technology or Engineering after your B. Sc. with Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics. It is also possible to do a Diploma in Ceramic Technology after your 10th standard examination.
A Bachelor's degree in ceramic engineering or materials science will only get you an entry-level job. Some firms ask for a degree in materials engineering, p hysical chemistry, physics, or metallurgy if the under-graduate programme has included ceramics. For a job in R & D you need at least a post graduation i.e. M Tech in Ceramics. If you are aiming high - top executive positions in administration or management a doctoral degree in ceramic technology, materials science or business administration will help.
Talking of personal attributes you must be able to communicate your ideas to managers, technicians, craftworkers, production workers, and customers. The core personal characteristics required are an innovative outlook and problem solving skills. Gift of the gab will be an added asset when you have to build a rapport and interact with artisans, technicians, managers, production workers and customers. You must also be a good team player and possess an innovative streak. Tension may be a part of the job when difficulty is encountered in meeting production schedules or project deadlines.
Technologists with post-graduate or doctoral degrees in mat erial science, technology and business administration can seek top-notch managerial and administrative posts.
Ceramic Engineers are employed in
industries producing glass, cement, porcelain, enamel refractories, iron and
steel and in industries manufacturing special ceramics for power and nuclear
energy projects, aerospace, R & D laboratories and defence establishments.
Ceramic engineering graduates usually begin as junior or assistant technologists and, as they gain experience, may advance to positions of greater responsibility. Depending on the structure and product line of the firm, a technologist may advance to supervising engineer, chief engineer or plant manager.
The ceramic technologist engaged in research may be given increasingly responsible assignments with corresponding salary increases and may progress to such positions as supervisor, project engineer or director of research.
Many ceramic technologists work in the nuclear field, as ceramic fuel materials make nuclear power generation possible.
The electronics i ndustry is a growth area for this technology, as ceramics are used as insulators for transistors and integrated circuits.
Refractory ceramics are required in the refining of iron and aluminum, and this industry is especially in need of this type of worker.
The exciting new field of fiber optics has had a dramatic effect on today's telecommunication and medical industries, and since ceramic components are used, ceramic technologists are playing a vital role in this new science.
Money & Other Benefits
Depending on the company, your
starting salary may range from Rs.6,000/- to Rs.8,500/- a month if you are a
degree holder. If you are a diploma holder your starting salary will range from
Rs.4,000/- to Rs.5,000/- a month.
Life, health, and accident insurance and retirement benefits are usually offered to ceramic technologists on a contributing or employer-paid basis. Some employers also offer stock options, profit-sharing plans or pay annual bonuses.
There is a shortage of ceramic
technologists. To maintain a competitive edge in the market, ceramic companies
will often hire ceramic technologists to serve in vital business and management
areas. Since Ceramics are a part of almost all industries, one can get into any
industry of one's choice and at most places in the country. This is an area
where one may find employment abroad too, if one so wishes.
One of the top research projects of ceramic technologists is the development of a ceramic engine which would replace the present diesel, gasoline, and turbo engines. This new engine would withstand extremely high temperatures, would be much lighter, would be more efficient, and would not wear out like metal engines. Are you game?
Civil Engineers handle all construction work. They are involved in the planning, research, survey and construction of all kinds of buildings as also roads, airports, dams, traffic and transportation systems, irrigation and power plants, water supply and sewage disposal plants, ports and harbours, oil rigs, etc. Basically, they are responsible for planning and designing a project and having it constructed to the required scale.
Civil Engineers also develop and maintain the nation's vital transportation and other infrastructure networks, improve public services, optimise the use of water and energy resources, upgrade housing and mass transportation systems, and protect natural environment.
Structural engineering, water management engineering, highway engineering and environmental engineering are some of the areas civil engineers specialise in. The civil engineer has to plan, research, survey and design the project and then get it constructed to the required scale.
Engineers are often the crucial link between the goal and reality. Once a company or government agency decides that it needs a certain product or process, the next step is for an engineer or team of engineers to create it as efficiently as possible within a budget. Engineers have a hand in all the phases of development, from idea conception, design and development, implementation and testing to customer support.
The engineers have to ensure that the structural framework of the building is strong enough to withstand the load for which it is being constructed and also should be able to withstand heat, cold and tremors. Engineers test and inspect products and structures to increase cost-effectiveness and safety.
Organising ability, practicality, spatial reasoning, excellent analytical and logical reasoning skills are some of the qualities needed to make it as a civil engineer. It is also necessary that you like working with tools, drawing sketches, and conceptualising forms and structures. The ability to express your ideas precisely to others is a must here. You must be mechanically inclined and ready to work with your hands.
Good logical and mental ability, problem solving skills and an ability to grasp concepts quickly are essential. An ability to express oneself using figures and words, perseverance and judgement are some of the other skills required.
Engineers need to be able to work with a team. Breaking problems down in a systematic way helps to divide the work among team members. You will usually serve as supervisor, ensuring that all team members co-ordinate their parts and communicate effectively to keep the project running smoothly.
The most successful engineers have a balance of creative and scientific skills and can master both established techniques and innovate new ones. Discipline, patience, and perseverance are also important qualities in an engineer-the ability to communicate with others is also a key skill, as engineers need to communicate effectively within their teams and with others.
After your SSC you can opt for a
diploma course after which, you can go for a degree. Alternatively, after 10+2
one can study engineering by any one of the following options:
Through Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) for IIT (Indian institute of Technology)
Through JEE of state engineering colleges in India. Your marks scored in 12th exam, particularly in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry and Maths are also taken into consideration.
The BE/B.Tech degree course in civil engineering covers structures, construction and surveying, foundation, fluid mechanics, hydraulics, environmental engineering, irrigation engineering, soil analysis, strength of materials, cost and works management and pollution control.
After graduating students can go in for postgraduate studies in India or abroad that will culminate in a master's degree. Further study up to Ph.D. level is also an option.
You could also opt for the
Master of Planning in Urban & Regional Planning/Housing/Transport planning
Master in Computer Application
P.G. Diploma in Cement Technology/Construction/Quality control.
M.Tech in Earthquake Engineering, Remote Sensing
You can start private practice as a consultant or work with municipalities, government construction, regulatory agencies, transportation authorities, architects or urban planners. Others can seek employment in construction or manufacturing companies. You can also work for organisations like ONGC, Railways and various departments of state and central governments.
Employment opportunities are exist in the government sector, including the railways, departments of irrigation, public works, roads, airports, harbours municipal corporations, telecommunications departments, etc.
You can also work as a commissioned officer in the defence services, Research organisations and laboratories.
Money & Other Benefits
Diploma holders begin at of Rs 3,500-5,500 a month. Graduates begin at Rs 6,000-14,000 a month in the beginning. A government job pays in the range of Rs 8,500-10,500.
For consultancy services you could charge extra depending on the project and your client.
The entry of multinational companies has increased the demand for good engineers. But, the entry level positions after B.E are not very broad. Mainly due to the opening up of the economy and privatisation of infrastructure developments there is expected to be a good demand for civil engineers.
Computer engineers are involved with the hardware and software aspects of computer systems design and development. They apply theories and principles of computational science, mathematics, material science, electrical technologies and digital technologies to design computer hardware, software, peripheral equipment like printers, computer networks and systems.
Their work can be divided into
Design and development of computer hardware: This involves research, design, and development of microprocessors, various components of computer systems like CPU (Central Processing Unit), ROM (Read Only Memory) chip, RAM (Random Access Memory), monitor, HDD (Hard Disk Drive), and CD drive.
Design and development of customised microprocessor: Customised microprocessors are used for specialised application like the microprocessor used for mobile telephony.
Design and development of networking hardware: Computer engineers are involved in design and development of various components for internetworking and intranetworking (network of offices of a company at various locations).
VLSI (Very Large-scale System Integration) design: Various large companies need macro scale computer systems to integrate their complex operations. These systems typically involve the use of computer terminals, networking hardware, system software (those which are critical in running a computer system), application software (those which are used for performing specific tasks like calculating total sales of a product across various locations in India), and various networking software. Computer engineers specializing in VLSI design are involved in design, development, and implementation of these macro scale systems.
Hardware manufacturing and testing: Computer engineers are involved in manufacturing various computer hardware components as well as the assembling of components. They are involved in testing of the assembled computer systems to check whether they are working as per standard.
Hardware maintenance: Computer engineers are also involved in servicing and maintenance of computer systems. They work in trouble shooting of hardware.
Network Engineering: In medium to large-scale companies, computers (generally called desktops) are mostly connected to one another or connected to one or more servers. Servers are very advanced and powerful computers, which serve the computing needs of many client machines (i.e., the desktop computers, which are connected).
Networks can be of various types right from LAN (Local area network) through which a number of computers in a building or office space are networked to Internet through with millions of computers can be connected. There is WAN (Wide Area Network), MAN (Municipal Area Network), GAN (Global Area Network), etc. There are also the concepts of Intranet through which all the computers of a particular company in all its offices globally are connected. Computer engineers are involved in Network Engineering along with the Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering.
Software Engineering: Software is the tool, which helps us to use the power of computer in various applications right from high-end scientific ones to low-end customized ones. Software is used in a range of areas right from e-commerce, mobile commerce, manufacturing, business, research and education. There are system softwares which are essential to run a computer system (example, Windows 2000), specific application software (example, MS-Office), and customised application software (example, software used by a company to prepare salary bills for its employees). Computer engineers working in software engineering are involved in analysis, development, commissioning, and testing of various types of software.
You need to have:
An interest in Science
Very strong mathematical and computing abilities
Very strong analytical abilities
Good communications and interpersonal skills
You will find employment
· In computer systems design, development, and manufacturing companies like IBM, Dell, and Compaq.
· In computer and networking hardware system design and development companies like i2 Technologies and Cisco systems.
· In software development companies like Infosys, TCS, Satyam Infotech
· Hardware assembling and
maintenance companies like CMC and HCL.
Money & Other Benefits
Computer engineers get about Rs 12,000-25,000 per month in the beginning depending on the company. Opportunities for earning are very good. A senior Computer Engineer can earn about Rs 50,000-70,000 or more a month. Salaries in jobs abroad are higher when converted into Indian currency.
Career prospects for computer engineers are very good given that the Information technology industry, though currently undergoing a slump, has an overall growth. For example, though it is believed that IT industry's future is bleak, IT software and services industry in India grossed an annual revenue of Rs 37,760 crore (US$ 8.26 billion) during 2000-01, up from Rs 24,350 crore (US$ 5.7 billion) during 1999-2000, according to the annual industry survey by National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM), the apex body of software, e-commerce and IT services industry in India. That's a cool 55% growth.
NASSCOM is projecting a figure of Rs 52,500 crore as the annual revenue of the software and services industry in the year 2001-2002. This means the industry is expected to grow at a rate of 39%.
Contrary to popular belief, Indian firms are still one of the favorites of global companies when it comes to sourcing software and related services. The NASSCOM study 2000-2001 has highlighted that one out of every four global giants outsourced their critical software requirements to India.
As per the Nasscom survey, the Indian software industry has not only been growing exponentially but also is maturing very fast. This means moving from serving low technology and manpower needs of companies to offering high tech solutions. The industry has evolved from body shopping (supplying IT manpower) to software development to enterprise solution to IT business consulting.
However it is true that due to the slow down in US economy, US firms have cut down their IT spending. But at the same time many US companies have expressed increasing interest in the Indian software industry. Many companies have announced their plans of either outsourcing software from India or investing in Indian IT industry. Apart from the US, companies in Europe and Japan are increasing their IT outsourcing to India.
Apart from the traditional software development sector, there are certain emerging sectors in the IT software and service industry, which will drive the overall growth of the industry in the near future. For example, e-commerce software is emerging as a significant area of growth. The McKinsey-NASSCOM study projects that by the year 2008, e-commerce software business in India can touch revenue of US $ 10 Billion.
IT enabled services are also emerging as another major factor for growth in this sector. This covers a wide range of services including call centre services, CRM (Customer Relationship Management) services, medical transcription, data conversion/data entry, data processing, back office operations, digital content development, animation, GIS (Geographic Information Services), etc.
So overall, it can be said that all is not bad in the IT industry. There are still a lot of potentials of growth. It may not be a meteoric growth but it is definitely going to be healthy. In fact, the industry is gunning for a total turnover of US $ 50 Billion by the year 2008. And naturally, there will be demand for quality manpower.
The demand for manpower may not be as exponential as we have seen over the last few years, but prospects for the trained professionals are definitely good The overall feeling is that, people with the right qualifications and skills will find jobs.
From toasters to computers,
electrical engineers are responsible for a wide range of technologies.
Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical equipment. Some of this equipment includes power generators, power transmission devices, broadcast and communications systems, electric motors, lighting buildings, automobiles, aircraft, computers and other office equipment and home appliances. In addition, this field encompasses audio video communication systems and industry automation.
Electrical engineers also write performance requirements and develop maintenance schedules. In addition to this, they solve operating problems and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects.
Electrical engineers are required to specialise in different areas such as power generation and distribution, communications and computers and electrical equipment manufacturing - or a subdivision of these areas- for example industrial robotics or electrical systems in aircraft.
Good logical and problem solving skills
Ability to grasp concepts quickly
Ability to express oneself using figures and words
You will also be required to put in long hours of study, work with tools and work in teams. In addition good communication skills and high motivation are also important to be a successful engineer in today's competitive and demanding workplace.
In order to qualify as an electrical
engineer, you need to have a BE/ B.Tech or ME/ M.Tech degree in electrical
engineering. There are both degree as well as diploma courses in electrical
engineering. If you want to make an early beginning you can choose this route.
After the SSC exams you can do a 3-year diploma course. After this course you
have two options. Join an engineering firm straightaway or enroll for a
three-year degree programme, which will enhance your job prospects.
Alternatively instead of jumping into a diploma after SSC, you could study science all the way up to HSC and then enroll for a four-year degree course in electrical engineering.
The electrical engineering course lays heavy emphasis on electrical networking, electronic devices and components, electronics and communication, distribution systems, electromagnetic theory and power electronics.
If you wish to study further after graduation you could choose between to do a master in electrical engineering, like an ME (Master of Engineering), M.Tech (master of Engineering) or MS (Master of Science-if pursued in the US). In all these courses you are required to study for another two years. You can also do a Ph.D if you want to enter the field of teaching of advanced research.
Most jobs are in engineering and
business consulting firms, manufacturers of electrical equipment, industrial
machinery and professional and scientific instruments. Communications and
utilities firms, manufacturers of aircraft and computer firms also employ
In the government sector electrical engineers find jobs in the various electricity boards as well as in the armed forces. You will need to appear for the "Indian Engineering Services" exam conducted by the UPSC at the national level or join various departments at the state level through their respective exams.
The armed forces also induct a number of electrical engineers.
Money & Other Benefits
As a trainee engineer with a Bachelor's degree you can expect to earn a salary of about Rs 5000-12000 or more a month. However your earnings will be much lower if you are just a diploma holder.
Virtually every company that produces an electrical product employs electrical engineers. As the demand for newer and better electrical appliances and machinery for house holds and for industry increases so does the demand for skilled engineers to make new breakthroughs. Specialisation is the name of the game these days and it wouldn't be such a bad idea to pursue a master s degree abroad. Back home too with the increase in the number of infrastructure projects undertakes by the government and Indian Industries, there has been a steady demand for engineers capable of delivering innovative solutions. Self employment also is emerging as a lucrative option be it small industrial project or fabrication activity
Of late engineers are in great demand not just for their technical services, but for their managerial abilities as well. An engineer with management qualifications is most sought after for implementing increasingly complicated projects.
Electronics engineer studies, designs and oversees production of consumer electronic equipment such as radios, televisions, computers and washing machines, to high-end electronics equipment like, dish antennas, communication satellites, radar systems etc.
You work includes:
· Developing and designing electronic products
· Construction and manufacturing of equipment
· Production process control
· Testing of new electronics components and equipment
· Installation and commissioning of products
· Maintenance of products
· Sales and marketing of products
Problem solving will be an important part of your job. You will use theory and your own ideas to work out why things are not working. You will be a link between the technicians on the production line and the design engineers.
The field of electronics has developed so quickly, and increases in complexity so much, that people tend to specialise because there is no way you can know everything. You will normally specialise in one work area of the electronics such as research and development, designing, testing, monitoring production, or marketing. You will make extensive use of computers as well as equipments such as oscilloscopes and voltmeters.
Expertise wise also, you will be specialised in one of the fields in Electronics like Digital Signal Processing, Industrial Electronics, Digital Electronics, Aviation Electronics, Fibre Optics and Lightwave Engineering, Microwave Electronics, Microelectronics, VLSI Design, Telecommunication Engineering, Power Electronics, Integrated Circuits, Communication & Radar Engineering, Control Engineering and Instrumentation, and Medical Electronics.
Although most of the time you will be working indoors in the workshop or the factory you may also have to travel to worksites to handle installation of electronics equipment. Most of the electronic product manufacturing facilities and research and development establishments are air-conditioned and dust free. Electronics is a precision engineering and it needs controlled environment.
· Good technical and numerical abilities
· Good communication skills
· Team work and leadership qualities
· Keen interest in technology
You will also need to be good at interpreting drawings, problem-solving skills and decision-making. Electronics engineers need to be creative, inquiring and able to work well as part of a team. You need to be self-motivated, patient, persistent and disciplined. It is important that you are able to make good judgments and work well under pressure.
Electronics engineers should have good hand-eye co-ordination and good eyesight as they deal with very small electronic components.
Electronics engineers need to have
a broad knowledge of physics, mechanics, electronics, maths and computers. A
diploma in electronics engineering is the minimum qualification to enter this
field. Of course, a bachelor's degree in the above stream will make your
prospects better. To be in research and development, you will need a Master
Continuing education is important, as you need to keep up with the improvements in technology that is taking place. You therefore need to read periodicals, books and look on the Internet yourself to keep informed.
You will gain employment in
· Consumer electronics companies like BPL, Videocon, etc
· Companies manufacturing electronic related products like LCD displays, cathode tubes, etc.
· Companies providing basic telephone and mobile telephone services like
BSNL, VSNL, MTNL, BPL Telecommunication Ltd., Orange
· Industrial Electronics and telecommunication equipment manufacturing companies like HFCL, Hindustan Cables Ltd., Enkay Telecommunication Ltd.
· Research & Development organizations like the DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation) and National Physical Laboratory
· Electronic product testing laboratories like the Regional Testing Laboratories under the Department of Electronics, Government of India
· Telecommunication hardware and software producing companies like Hughes Telecommunication, Cisc o systems, and Mahindra British Telecommunication
· Computer software producing companies like Infosys Ltd., TCS, and HCL
· Telecommunication and Internet Service providers like VSNL, BSES, and Reliance Telecommunication Ltd.
· Defence services
Government sector also has good openings for engineers. Other than the Public Sector Enterprises like BSNL, BHEL, SAIL, NTPC etc., UPSC conducts an exclusive exam every year, called Indian Engineering Service (IES), for recruitment of engineers specializing in various fields, in organizations like the Railways, Central Public Works Department (CPWD), Military Engineering Service etc. Civil Service is also quite a popular option. You can also work in the sales and marketing departments of Electronics companies. Teaching at academic institutions remains another option open to you.
Money & Other Benefits
Starting salary is in the range of
Rs 6,000-9,000 per month. Salaries for diploma holders are in the range of Rs
3,500-6,000 per month.
Most companies have training programmes for their engineers. So you may even get to go to a reputed university abroad to specialise in a particular area at your company's cost.
Electronics Engineering graduates have a bright employment future, as there is comparatively plentiful number of jobs at the entry level. This rosy job outlook for engineers is in large part due to a shortage of people with the right set of technical skills.
Overall prospects of electronic engineers are very good as electronics industry is developing very fast with arrival of newer technologies almost every month. The new century will also see merging of electronics, telecommunication, computer, and biotechnology which will further push the demand for electronic engineers up.
The rapid technological changes that are taking place in the electronics industry mean that engineers need to keep up to date with the skills and knowledge required. In addition, the development of modern electronic processes, and the way in which electronic equipment works through software, has meant that computer software design and programming skills are also required out of electronics engineers.
Increasing urbanisation and
mounting industrial activity has resulted in greater use of electrical devices
in houses and offices. Add to that terrorist activities like bombing, and
irresponsible deployment of inflammable substances and you have the perfect
recipe for fire hazards. Chemical fires in industries is not uncommon.
Out of the many opportunities at a Fire station you could choose to be a fire fighter or a fire engineer.
The fire engineer advises and assists organisations in taking protective measures against fire hazards; he may be called upon to design or recommend materials or equipment, alarm systems, fire extinguishing systems; and provide advice on location, handling and maintenance of such devices and systems.
Fire engineers are also responsible for determining causes of fire and methods of fire prevention. They conduct research and tests on fire retardants and fire safety of materials a nd devices. They may recommend safe methods for the storage of inflammable and other hazardous materials. Fire engineers have to use mathematical principles to assess fire risk, then apply scientific principles to fire-safety practices.
With experience, a fire engineer moves up the ladder and takes on supervisory, administrative and regulatory responsibilities too. In senior positions, they are placed in charge of training and supervising fire-fighters, administer laws and regulations related to fire department in the organisation, ensure maintenance of fire equipment, prepare departmental budgets and so on.
In the inhibition and prevention of the onset and spread of fire, fire engineering uses management techniques. In active fire fighting and supervisory roles, a fire engineer's work is hazardous, however, administration and research spheres mean more of deskwork.
A fire-fighter's main responsibility is reducing the consequences of fire if there is an incident. The other side of is to reduce the incidence of fire, by effective fire prevention and fire safety advice.
Fire-fighters have to work in shifts in dangerous conditions and are at risk of burns, smoke inhalation and exposure to chemicals. The successful firefighter is an approachable, good communicator with the ability to take decisive action under trying circumstances. Firefighters must be able to perform strenuous physical tasks, such as carrying unconscious people down flights of stairs, directing the flow of a hose that carries 2,000 gallons of water per minute, or breaking down doors locked from the inside.
The profession is very
dangerous--over one in four firefighters have to take time off for work-related
injuries, ranging from slipped disks to disfiguring burns--and requires a
strong sense of commitment to public service.
P.S. Rahangdale, Station Officer at Fort Fire Brigade and recipient of the President's medal, says, "without courage, one cannot enter any emergency site. It is vital to be ready in the line of action." The December 1992 and January 1993 riots in Mumbai saw the Fire stations are manned around the clock. Fire Department being deluged with thousands of calls. Firefighters must be able to deal with brief bursts of intense activity, then long periods of boredom. One fireman recalls, ''there were times when we had to attend over 100 calls in just one shift of eight hours.''
Fire-fighters need to be able to relate to a five-year-old one day and a 75-year old the next. It's being aware of how to communicate with different age gro ups and cultures. They also need to know about relevant fire safety legislation, fire safety precautions and how these relate to buildings and building construction. They need to know about streets and places in their district, the handling of dangerous goods and building construction. They also need to know about fire-fighting, different types of fires and how to deal with them, and about rescue methods and equipment.
Fire-fighters need to enjoy working in the community, and be able to relate well to people from different cultures, lifestyles and age groups. They need to be calm in emergencies and able to make good judgements. They need to be patient and disciplined, quick and efficient, reliable, self-confident and able to work well in teams. They need to be in good health with no breathing problems, and have a consistently good level of fitness.
Fire engineering is a technical
profession that calls for a person with a scientific bent of mind. Other
qualities include physical agility, presence of mind, calmness of mind,
self-discipline, the ability to take quick, snappy decisions, a sense of
responsibility and leadership qualities. One should also plan for an
eventuality in advance, for after all accidents wouldn't be accidents if we
knew about them beforehand.
One should also have the desire to learn and update oneself constantly. Being able to handle all types of people is a definite asset. Taking control of panic-stricken crowds and shocked victims is no easy task.
There are some physical qualities
that are pre-requisites. Apart form being physically fit, one should be free
from any disease that hamper one when discharging duty. The minimum height
stipulated is 165 centimetres. Chest measurement: 81 centimetres, with five
Fire-fighters need to have educational and presentation skills, good written and spoken communication skills, organisational ability, and skills in evaluating situations, making decisions and solving problems. They also need to have practical ability, such as first aid skills, fire-fighting skills, and a reasonable level of computer skills.
After Class 10 + 2 With Physics, Chemistry, Maths you can opt for a diploma in Fire engineering. Alternatively after B.Sc with Chemistry as a major subject you can do a BE in Fire engineering.
There are some diploma courses on offer by private institutes, which may not get you a job in a city/state fire service but you may get a job in various companies, which manufacture fire fighting systems. You may also get a job in Middle East or Africa.
You can also begin as a Sub-Officer in a city or state. Fire service after doing a Fire Sub-Office course and later on getting promotions after passing out departmental examinations.
The government has made it
mandatory for all companies in the private and public sector, to appoint a fire
officer if their workforce exceeds a specified number. The fire officer who
will be incharge of procuring the materials and devices to give direct training
to the workforce of company, supervise fire fighters engaged in operation,
administer law and regulation regarding the fire department and ensure
maintenance of fire equipments.
Fire engineers find job openings in the government fire services, architectural and building design, insurance assessment, project management, aircraft industry, refineries, industrial processing, and any area of safety where the possibility of fire or combustion represents a hazard. All major organisations that own offices or residential premises use the services of a fire engineer to ensure safety of their premises.
The protective role requires a lot of safety checks, updating of equipment, con ducting scheduled and surprise fire drills. Fire engineers may also work as surveyors in insurance companies assessing the extent of damage suffered by an insured party, investigating the cause of the fire, the efficacy of the fire safety devices, equipment and alarm systems.
Money & Other Benefits
In Government establishments, your starting gross salary could be in the range of Rs 5,000-7,000 a month. Opportunities for getting a job in industry, office complexes, or other private sector establishments generally exist after a few years of experience. In private sector, salary on joining may gross around Rs 8,000-14,000 per month. If you are lucky, you can land up a job in the Middle East or African countries with a salary of about Rs 25,000 or more per month.
With the ever-increasing risk of
fire hazards the need for specially-trained fire fighters and engineers has
become indispensable. Although technology has improved considerably, unforeseen
circumstances and unique developments all require competent and experienced
professionals to make snap decisions and take decisive action.
A degree in fire engineering makes one eligible for the management cadre in Fire Service in the government or public sector. Fire stations all over the country employ fire engineers. With increasing urbanisation and industrial activity, the use of electrical devices, appliances, office automation has become a must in most organisations and homes. The situation in turn increases the possibilities of eventualities. Fire engineers play a pivotal role in ensuring protection and taking the necessary precautions. Every state gover nment has a fire department executing preventive and precautionary functions.
An option lies in the insurance sector as surveyors. When there are instances of fire accidents, fire engineers are called upon to assess the extent of the damage, investigate the cause of the fire, the efficiency of equipment installed and so on.
Industrial engineers determine the
most effective ways for an organisation to use the basic factors of
production-people, machines and materials to make a product or provide a
You will design better methods and facilities for manufacturing and services. You will study the various industrial processes involved, use mathematical models and computer simulation to devise new manufacturing systems that are more efficient. You will calculate how much work each machine or worker should deliver and if necessary initiate the use of automation and robots. You will aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production systems as well as quality control procedures. You will also have to work out the best possible system for handling and storage of raw material, setting inventory size, as well as packaging and the physical distribution of goods and services. In addition to these responsibilities you are also concerned with worker safety and work environment.
When new projects come up, you will be involved in it from start to finish. Industrial engineers determine the suitability of locations for factories depending on the best combination of raw materials availability, transportation, and costs. In actual plant design, you will figure out which computer systems, machines and automated equipment will be used in the design and manufacturing process. You will determine the most effective layout for computers, equipment and offices such that it is flexible and easily maintainable. You will also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programmes.
Industrial engineers must also understand ergonomics (which seeks to adapt working conditions to suit the worker) and consider how the machines and work environment affect the worker. You will design workstations to reduce fatigue and prevent discomfort and work related injuries. You will ensure that the placement of equipment, computers and keyboards is perfect right down to the height of desks and tables.
Much of an Industrial Engineer's output is used by management for making decisions. Your recommendations may affect the size of a firm's profits, its labor relations, as well as its production costs. In many ways you are the bridge between management goals and operational performance.
One of the major challenges an Industrial Engineers faces is automating a production process. You will have to first determine what aspects of production needs to be automated and if it makes financial sense. You will also decide which machines fit the requirements.
You will be spending a lot of time in your office pouring over papers and meeting heads of various departments. Your visit to the production plant would usually be restricted to supervising installation of new equipment and ensuring that the production flows smoothly.
· Strong technical and numerical abilities
· Good communication skills
· Team work and leadership qualities
· Analytical ability
· Organising ability
· Spatial reasoning
· Excellent logical reasoning skills
· Ability to grasp concepts quickly
Apart from the general qualities
that every engineer should possess, industrial engineers should also enjoy
working with people. It is essential that industrial engineers not only show
proper technical understanding, but that they should also have insight into
human relations, accounting and management techniques. They should also be able
to adapt effortlessly to changing work situations and circumstances
In order to qualify as an industrial engineer you need to have a BE/ B.Tech or ME/ M.Tech degree in industrial engineering. After the SSC exams you can do a three-year diploma course. After this course you have two options. Join an engineering firm straightaway or enroll for a three-year degree programme.
Instead of doing a diploma, you could study science all the way up to HSC and then enroll for a four year degree course in industrial engineering.
If you wish to study further after graduat ion you could choose between to do a master in industrial engineering, like an ME (Master of Engineering), M.Tech (master of Engineering), which are for one and a half year, or an MS (Master of Science-if pursued in the US), which lasts for two years. You can also do a Ph.D if you want to enter the field of teaching of advanced research.
The course in industrial engineering will teach you concepts involving industrial automation, systems engineering, process engineering as well as management concepts. A Masters degree in business administration (MBA) is particularly helpful for those planning to branch out into industrial management later on.
Any Engineering graduate can do a Master's in Engineering in Industrial Engineering.
Almost any organisation in the industrial sector requires the services of industrial engineers. A majority of industrial engineers work in manufacturing industries. Other employment avenues exist in the construction and pharmaceutical sectors.
organisations like Larsen and Tubro and Tata Engineering services also employ
You will begin your career as an assistant engineer. As you gain experience, you will advance to associate and senior level positions. From here you can branch out into senior managerial levels like project management or production supervision.
As a trainee engineer with a Bachelor's degree you can expect to earn a salary of about Rs 8000-12000 per month. However your earnings will be much lower if you are just a diploma holder. Senior engineers earn as much as Rs 30,000 - 40,000 per month.
The increasing complexity of industrial operations and the expansion of automated processes in factories and offices is contributing to the demand for industrial engineers. In today's troubled times, companies are trying to cut costs and improve efficiency. Most of them choose to outsource experienced industrial engineers. Starting your own consultancy firm after several years experience has therefore become a very lucrative option.
There are various categories of footwear - those made from leather, synthetic material and other fibres. Since all humans are different in size and taste, shoe manufacture needs to keep in mind different needs and wants - shoes for men, women, children, formal shoes, casual shoes, trekking shoes, sports shoes and so on. As you can imagine, the list of different styles of shoes is endless.
In India, we have both the organized and unorganized sector in the shoe manufacturing industry. In the organized sector shoe manufactures use sophisticated machinery and skilled manpower. Here shoe manufacturing is a highly mechanized process. This sector comes under the purview of the Ministry of Commerce, which has set up institutes to help expand footwear production and export.
On the other hand we have the unorganized sector like the village sector where the work is handled by the state level artisans. They form a part of the Khadi and Village Industries Cooperatives.
There are also other players in the
private sector that deal with the production and export of footwear, in
collaboration with international contacts.
The functions carried out in a footwear industry can be classified into:
Designing: This is purely for the
creative brains. It involves creating new styles and patterns, of footwear. The
job of footwear designers today has gone high tech as they use computer aided
design systems to churn out beautiful footwear. If footwear designers had their
way and dress the feet in their creations, we'd be looking at people's feet
rather then at their faces. Footwear designer are faced with the constant
challenge of coming up with new styles to adorn our feet.
Manufacturing: After the design comes the actual process of making the footwear. It has become a mechanized process where skilled technicians are required to operate the machines. If you happen to work for a sports shoe manufacturer like Nike or Reebok your main task will be to design shoes for the competitive athlete.
Marketing: Here you'll be involved in selling various types of shoes to the various retail outlets. Knowledge of the domestic and international market will hold you in good stead. You will also be involved in organizing shoe fairs and exhibitions in and around India. Marketing managers generally work with advertising agencies to work out marketing strategies.
If your work involves designing footware then it goes without saying that you need to be creative. "As a designer, I am constantly noticing things that inspire creative thoughts. During one of my visits to Japan, I was inspired by this organic building that contrasted all the other conventional homes in the neighborhood. For the Air Fantaposite Max, I was particularly interested in how different shapes and patterns can wrap around 360 degrees to form a unique 3-D structure," says Matt Holmes, Nike Footwear Designer.
Though it is not mandatory for footwear designers to be involved in the production part of it, technical knowledge can sure be an added advantage. It's always good to know what the different components that go into the making of the shoes. It gives you the insight you need when it comes to designing.
There is a lot of hard work involved if you want to make a career out of it. Recognition comes very hard, once you have made your presence felt in the field. You got to be passionate about your work along with the ability to experiment. Precision is one of the most important factors in footwear designing. While designing the footware the designer has to keep the prospective buyer in mind. Unlike designing a piece of garment, which can be altered later according to the specifications of the buyer, a pair of sandals cannot be amended later on. So you have to be extra careful.
All aspiring footwear designers must also keep themselves abreast of the latest happenings in the field. Finally the west is taking note of the footware industry in India and that is good news for all aspiring footware technologists. Today our designs are selling well in the international market. So knowing the developments in the indust ry helps.
Being computer savvy is an added qualification because most footwear technology courses are computer aided. Use of CAD (Computer Aided Design) in footwear designing has made it much easier. And thanks to the Internet, today you can send a design to any part of the world.
To make an entry in to this field
you need to go for a course in footwear technology or designing right after
your HSC. Some certificate and short-term courses require only an SSC. There
are various courses that you can choose from, depending on your interest. The
duration of the courses can vary from 12 weeks to two years. You can opt for a
Diploma in footwear designing or even choose to do B.Tech in footwear
The National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad offers courses both after 10+2 and graduation.
After 10+2 NID offers Graduate Diploma Programmes of four-year duration. Eligibility is 10+2. The Institute conducts an entrance examination consisting of a test and interview. Competence in technical and related subjects is normally be considered an advantage. Upper age limit for candidates is 22 years (for SC/ST candidates the age limit is relax able by 3 years). Candidates with higher qualifications are also eligible to apply. Central Footwear Training Institute (CFTI) also offers courses in Footware technology.
completing your course you can either apply for a job with shoe houses or do
projects with them. As this can give you considerable amount of working
knowledge it is always good to begin by taking on projects with footwear
manufacturers. If designing is what you want to pursue, you could approach a
garment designer with samples of your works. In this way you could do
collections on a small scale for designers.
If you have the infrastructure and capital, then you could also open a small unit of your own and supply to retail stores. Nowadays Internet is becoming a favourite shopping mall for many. You can also display pictures of your collection on the Net, which will enable sales.
Money & Other Benefits
Starting salaries for designers of all kinds will be in the range of Rs 6,000 per month. However if you are from a good institute you can expect a few more thousands in your initial salary packet. After that as you progress in your profession, the salary will be proportionate to the kind of work that you can churn out. It's not unheard of about dedicated designers earning around Rs 50,000 per month after being in the industry for a few years.
Post/Average Candidate/Candidate from FDDI/Candidate from CLRI & CFTC
Designers & Supervisors/Rs 3,500 (starting pay)/Rs 5,500-7,500/-
Managers/Rs 6,500 (starting pay)/Rs 7,000-9,000/-
Candidates with MFT /Rs. 6,500 (starting pay)/
Senior Managers with MFT/Rs 20,000
Technical Officers (Dip. in FT)/Rs 7000-9000
Assistant Managers (PG in FT)/Rs 10,000-12,000
Footwear designing may not have created ripples in the career field the way IT or Biotechnology have. But it is a field that is slowly catching up. With the boom in the fashion industry, footwear designing is becoming a popular career choice.
A number of international footwear
companies have also stepped in. "There is a lot of scope in the field of
footwear designing. People just need to be made more aware of it," says
Prem Pal, Director of the Central Footwear Training Institute (CFTI).
Earlier, a career in the field of footwear designing was unheard of in India. "We have always looked to the West when it came to fashion. The fashion capital of footwear has always been Italy," says Sadiq Mohammed, a scientist with Central Leather Research Institute of India (CLRI). "India had always been in the backyard as far as footwear designing went. The designs were imported. But that has changed and now buyers look upon us to design and manufacture the shoes," he says.
There is tremendous amount of scope for this industry as the Ministry of Commerce continues to place emphasis on it. About 20-30 per ce nt growth is expected in the coming years, which translates into career opportunities for many.
Export industry is also picking up and is planning to reach 400 million pairs in the next 5 years! The investment cost being low, a number of private units are also being established. Students, on the individual level, are given support from the institutes such as the FDDI, in the form of loans given on merit. Therefore, those interested in this field should definitely pursue it as the Footwear Industry certainly holds a good future.
If you thought you got to be a sailor to have a career in the sea, then read this. There are various options you can choose from. In fact there are more career gateways in the shipping industry than most of us realise. This branch of engineering stands out from others mainly because of the job opportunities that lie at the end.
As a marine engineer, you will be responsible for the ship's machinery and equipment and its engine department. This includes all the mechanical, electrical and electronic systems on board a ship. At sea you will be responsible for the smooth working of all systems and be able to solve problems quickly, should anything go wrong.
On shore you will be responsible for over seeing the maintenance and any refits that you may consider necessary. Yours will be an important job as without its propellers a ship is as good as a big piece of metal! Later on, you could move on to designing next generation ships, or specialise in the repair and maintenance of boats.
The life of a marine engineer is not an easy one. You will mostly be below the deck of the ship. You will have to memorise your way through the main engine, boilers and pumps, hydraulic and fuel systems including the ships electrical plant and distribution system. If any part of a ship's systems fails, it must be dismantled, assessed, repaired, reassembled and put back into operation. This will be your responsibility.
You will get an opportunity to work on passenger liners and ferries, ships carrying cargo, offshore oil and gas supply and pipelining vessels, warships and submarines, and a variety of other specialised craft. So you better be prepared to get your hands dirty.
This is what you need if you are planning a career as a marine engineer.
* Ability to adjust with people
* Ability to handle stress
* Should be level-headed
* Practical and cool in times of crisis
For starters, Mechanical and Electronic Engineers qualify for training in Marine Engineering. However, those of you who want to start early need to take the IIT entrance exams after the 12th standard. The course is conducted at Marine Engineering Research Institute (MERI), in Calcutta and in Mumbai. It offers a government recognised Bachelor's degree (BE) in Marine Engineering. There are also some courses offered at other institutes.
You course will include practical training including operating, overhauling and testing auxiliary power plants in addition to the fundamentals of marine engineering.
A seafaring career begins as a Junior or Fifth engineer. The ranks progress to Fourth Engineer, Third Engineer, Second Engineer and finally at the apex - Chief Engineer. At this level you will be the technical equivalent of the captain.
Marine Engineers for the most part of their lives work at sea. But there are plenty of shore-based jobs available. You can work in the shipping industry for trading, buying, freighting and selling cargo.
A marine engineer may find opportunities in: -
In large passenger ships you could function as a Hotel Services Engineer. You will take care of galley equipment, air conditioning and passenger lifts.
In ships that carry perishable items such as frozen foods etc., you could function as the refrigeration engineer.
On scientific survey ships or those involved in cable laying you will be in charge for the use and maintenance of diving equipment.
In the Indian navy, in addition to maintaining the ship's engines, you will also have the opportunity to operate complex weapon systems on ships and even submarines.
Offshore, you could find employment in dockyards as well as companies engaged in ship building. You can also take up jobs with a harbour or port department. But for these offshore posts some experience at sea is required.
Money & Other Benefits
In the beginning of your career, expect a salary of Rs 30,000 a month as a Fifth Engineer on a merchant marine vessel. The pay scales are much lesser in Indian Navy. If I were you I would be heading for the Merchant Navy. Just look at the money - a First Officer in the Merchant Navy gets up to Rs 1 lakh every month! And the Chief Engineer earns as much as Rs 1.5 lakh per month!
Shipping has always been a big industry. Although there isn't much indication of any great surge in the industry, there isn't any decline either. The job opportunity has remained stable and the demand supply ratio has remained constant. A large number of engineering graduates opt for this field and so competition remains high.
The creation of mechanical engineers impacts all of us. They are the wheels of the world. Mechanical engineers, design, develop, and manufacture every kind of vehicle, power system, machine and tool. Simply put, mechanical engineers are involved with anything that moves. In fact any type of machine that produces, transmits or uses power is most likely the brainchild of a mechanical engineer. There is hardly any aspect of life that is not influenced by a mechanical engineer.
As a mechanical engineer in this field you will research, develop, design, manufacture and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices. You will work on power generating machines such as electricity generators, internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. You can also develop machines such as refrigerators and air-conditioners, robots, materials handling systems, and industrial production equipment's. Mechanical engineers also design tools needed by other engineers for their work.
Your work will also include designing and developing jet engines, steam engines, power plants, underwater structures, hydraulic systems, measurement devices, etc. you can also work in testing or product maintenance. So you see mechanical engineering is the broadest and most diverse engineering discipline. Not many people can perform their jobs without mechanical engineers.
Mechanical engineering may be broken down into many sub-specialties. Some Mechanical Engineers work in specific industries, building and designing nuclear plants, or automobiles, or railway equipment, or aircraft. These mechanical engineers are sometimes called nuclear engineers, automotive engineers, railway engineers and aerospace engineers, respectively.
Other areas where mechanical engineers play an important part are in fossil fuel, solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage, waste disposal and management, environmental control, fuel research, and ocean engineering.
Some mechanical engineers also work in areas not usually considered to involve engineering. Biomechanical engineers cooperate with physicians to investigate the workings of the body and to design aids and instruments for medicine. Other Mechanical Engineers, work closely with trainers and athletes, to design sports equipment. In the textile industry, they work with fabric designers and artists. In fact, it would be hard to fine an area or object in every day life that was not in some way affected by a Mechanical Engineer.
The explosive development in the use of computers is causing enormous changes in the analysis, design, manufacture and operation of many mechanical engineering systems. This refers not only to recognized 'high technology' areas such as the use of lasers, automation, computer aided engineering and design, but also to a host of mechanical engineering systems related to transportation, automotive engineering, manufacturing, power generation, biomechanical engineering, materials behaviour in design, fuel alternatives, pollution control and many others.
Strong technical ability, communication skills and high motivation are equally important characteristics for a successful engineer in today's competitive and demanding workplace. If you want a job that challenges you each and every day, and provides you with a wide variety of career opportunities, mechanical engineering is an excellent choice.
In order to qualify as a mechanical engineer you need to have a BE/ B.Tech or ME/ M.Tech degree in mechanical engineering. There are both degree as well as diploma courses in mechanical engineering. If you want to make an early beginning you can choose this route. After the SSC exams you can do a 3 year diploma course. After this course you have two options. Join an engineering firm straightaway or enroll for a three year degree programme, which will enhance you job prospects.
There another way you could be a mechanical engineer. Instead of jumping into a diploma after SSC, you could study science all the way up to HSC and then enroll for a four year degree course in mechanical engineering. Both ways, the number of years equal to six years (10+3+3 or 10+2+4). The degree awarded will be BE (Bachelor of Engineering) or B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology).
The subjects covered in mechanical engineering are theory of machines, applied thermodynamics, machine design, fluid mechanics, refrigeration and air-conditioning, machine tool design, heat transfer, prime movers, pumps and compressors.
If you wish to study further after graduation you could choose between to do a master in mechanical engineering, like an ME (Master of Engineering), M.Tech (master of Engineering) or MS (Master of Science-if pursued in the US). All these courses need you to study for another two years. You can also do a Ph.D if you want to enter the field of teaching of advanced research.
Most engineering institutions in India offer a four year degree courses mechanical engineering. Some of the Mechanical Engineering colleges and Universities are:
The IIT's viz; IIT Mumbai, Delhi
(for under-graduate and graduate studies) .
IIT BHU (Benaras Hindu University) .
Veer Jijamata Technical Institute (VJTI), Matunga, Mumbai.
Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Andheri, Mumbai.
Here's the good news. Mechanical engineers probably have the maximum number of employment opportunities. The most traditional careers in mechanical engineering are those working as design and manufacturing engineers for companies that produce a mechanical product, such as cars, planes or refrigerators. In the government sector some of the largest employers include the Indian Railways and the armed forces. In the public and private sector almost all industries require mechanical engineers. Maximum openings exist in the sectors of power generation, automobile. Machine tools.
Mechanical engineering students can go on to work of international giants such as General motors, Boeing, Pratt and Whitney, General Electric, Ford and Many other 'mechanical engineering' companies. In these firms you have the choice of entering the field, where you will design and manufacture products, or supervise teams of younger engineers. The other option is to enter the management track.
Most of the large technical firms are still run by managers with degrees in engineering. General Motors, for instance, had a succession mechanical engineers as CEOs during the years when they prospered. The military research labs and Nasa all employ large numbers of mechanical engineers.
Today, mechanical engineering has merged and inter-faced with the worlds of electrical, electronics, computer engineering. As a mechanical engineer you will find work in may industries and your work will vary by industry and function. Some specialties include applied mechanics; computer-aided design and manufacturing; energy systems; pressure vessels and piping; and heating, refrigeration, and air conditioning systems. You can work in production operations, maintenance, or technical sales as administrators or managers.
You can also work in the research and development team (RandD) of any industry. Here you will have to come up with optimal, efficient, accurate, cost-saving and safe designs of the product under consideration. If you are employed in the automobiles industry you be involve din the safety testing of the vehicle being manufactured, designing safe, crash and crumple zones for cars.
Initially you will have to begin as an apprentice or a trainee in the Research and Development (R and D), Production or Quality Control departments. If the company finds you good enough you could be retained after a year as an officer. Managerial posts start coming once you have completed 7-8 years in this field. It will be a long way before you are promoted to the post of a General Manager of the firm.
Alternatively, you can also choose to be you master and become an entrepreneur.
Money & Other Benefits
As a trainee engineer with a Bachelor's degree you can expect to earn a salary of about Rs 5000-12000 or more a month. However your earnings will be much lower if you are just a diploma holder.
Virtually every company that produces a product employs some mechanical engineers. Mechanical engineers are also involved in the computer industry in the design of hard disk drives, in the cooling of electronic components and of course in the manufacturing of all of the components of a computer.
The scope for mechanical engineers in manufacturing will only increase as the demand for improved machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and processes become increasingly complex. The demand for mechanical engineers in business and engineering services firms is expected to grow faster than average as other industries in the economy increasingly contract out to these firms to solve engineering problems. In addition to job openings from growth, many openings should result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labour force.
Mining Engineer & Metallurgist
Your responsibilities will involve ensuring proper ventilation, pumping, lighting and power facilities at the site. As a Metallurgist you will be handling minerals and developing new alloys. You will also develop new methods for processing different kinds of metals.
As a Mining Engineer you will be involved in finding, extracting and preparing minerals for use in manufacturing industries. You have to decide the best method to do all this.
Your work will involve designing open pits and underground mines, supervising the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations. You will also devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants.
Besides, you will also decide the best suitable method for transporting the minerals to the factories where they will be processed. And lastly, you will be responsible for treating and storing the minerals. You will work alongside geologist and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits.
This field is not for the weak hearted. You need to be prepared for natural disasters such as the earth collapsing or caving in, fire, floods, explosion, etc.
Law does not allow women to work underground. However, aspiring women could train as metallurgists and work in production and marketing of metals, minerals and metal products.
You need to have:
To enter this field you need a Bachelors course in B. Tech/BE or B.Sc. in Mining Engineering, Mining Machinery, Mineral Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Open Cest, Surface Mining and Metallurgy. The minimum requirement is 10+2 with science.
The B. Tech/B. Sc. courses are for a period of four years. There are also diploma courses in Mining and Metallurgy after SSC.
After graduation you could do your Masters (M.Tech) with specialisation in Mineral Exploration, Open Cest Mining, Mineral Machinery, Mineral Engineering, Mining, Mine Planning or Mechanisation.
Mining Technologists and
Metallurgists are primarily employed with public sectors like Coal India, Hindustan
Zinc Ltd., the steel plants at Bhilai, Rourkela, Durgapur and Bokaro, the
Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd., and the Geological Survey of India.
You could also be recruited in Central and State Government offices as Mine Managers, Ventilation Officers, Safety Officers, Analysts or Assistant Metallurgists at the junior level.
With promotions you could rise to the Senior Executive Position. Promotions depend upon the company's rules and are usually based on competency and seniority.
Mining and Petroleum Engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Your job requires specialisation in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold.
These days the main emphasis is on protecting the environment. You could be involved in solving problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution. You can also be involved in studies related to exploration, development and extraction of oil and gas deposits; plan, design, develop and supervise projects for the drilling, completion, testing and re-working of oil and gas wells; and, conduct analyses of oil and gas reserves and production potential.
Developing new mining equipment or directing mineral processing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock and other materials with which they are mixed can be another area of work.
Metallurgists are employed with research laboratories, industries and plants extracting and processing metals like iron and steel, nickel, tin, copper, zinc, aluminum, brass, etc.
Money & Other Benefits
As a graduate Engineer Trainee/Executive/Management trainee, your starting salary could Rs 5, 000-8,500 a month or more. With a diploma you can expect a starting salary of about Rs 3, 000-5,000 or more a month.
Depending on the company, your salary as a Mining Engineer may vary from Rs 6,500-8,000 a month in the beginning.
Opportunities are aplenty in the private sector in the manufacture and fabrication of mineral-based products like steel, petroleum automobiles, etc. Plants involved in extracting and processing nickel, zinc, tin, copper, aluminium and brass and foundries and rolling mills also employ Mining Engineers and Metallurgists. You could also opt for teaching and training or academic research.
Since Mining and Petroleum Engineers have a broad training, there are many other career opportunities open to them in the construction and tunneling industry, banking and finance, engineering consulting companies, equipment manufacturers and Federal and State agencies, to name a few.
A naval architect is a professional engineer who is responsible for the design, construction and repair of ships, boats and offshore structures.
Merchant ships - Oil/Gas Tankers, Cargo Ships, Cruise Liners, etc
Warships - Frigates, Destroyers, Aircraft Carriers, Amphibious Ships, etc
Submarines and underwater vehicles
Offshore Drilling Platforms and Semi Submersibles
High Speed Craft - Hovercraft, Multi-Hull Ships, Hydrofoil Craft, etc
Workboats - Fishing Vessels, Tugs, Pilot Vessels, Rescue Craft etc
Yachts, Power Boats and other recreational craft
You will design vessels and offshore structures that are stable, seaworthy and have the economic performance for a comfortable travel in all conditions. You will build complex mathematical and physical models to test and prove that the design is satisfactory.
Apart from the architectural aspects of ship form and layout, you will also have to ensure that the design meets the technical and safety standards laid down by the various governing agencies.
You will then convert these drawings and detailed specifications into real structures. You will be responsible for the management of planning, production and the complex operation of fitting equipment. You will strive to make savings with new techniques and equipment and better training for the work force. Organising the supply of materials and components as well as inspection and testing are also part of your job.
Ships and offshore vessels are kept in service for decades and so maintenance repair and upgradation becomes part and parcel of every naval architect. Emergency repair work will often require you to come up with ingenuous ideas and improvise on the spot.
In additions to the above duties, you will coordinate activities with your clients, other professionals and government officials. You will also be required to assist in the budgeting process.
Most of your time would be spent on the computer using architecture and engineering software. But you will also have to work on the dry docks (docks where the ships are berthed and the water is drained out) as well as off shore. Modern engineering on this scale is essentially a team activity conducted by engineers from various disciplines. However, as a naval architect you will integrate all these activities to produce a product, which is fit for the purpose.
You need to have:
Good design and technical skills
An eye for detail
Sound analytical and numerical ability
Good communication skills
Physical stamina to work on the desk as well on the site, patience, team spirit, sense of responsibility and accountability are some other important traits of this profession.
The minimum qualification to enter this field is a Bachelor's degree in Naval Architecture / Ocean Engineering. You can also pursue your Bachelor's in Architecture and then do a postgraduate specialisation in Naval Architecture.
You will learn the systems involved in a typical design process like analysing requirements, deciding materials and production techniques as well as assessing quality and reliability.
Along with the various engineering techniques such as material fabrication, assembly, installation and commissioning you will also be made aware of management practices such as production, planning and quality control.
Naval Architects are employed by ship builders and offshore constructors such as Garden Reach Ship Builders & Engineers Ltd., Mazgaon Docks, Goa Shipyard Ltd., etc. Here you will work on commercial as well as defence projects. Companies involved in off shore petroleum drilling for petroleum like ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Commission) also employ Naval Architects
You can work with companies engaged in the design of products as propulsion systems, auxiliary (back up) systems, under water equipment and control systems.
Many shipping companies have technical departments in which Naval Architects are responsible for the many phases of ship and equipment procurement and for taking care of the company's maritime operations. (SCI, Great Eastern Shipping Company Ltd.)
Naval Architects are also employed as ship surveyors by national and international agencies such as the International Maritime Organisation. You will be evaluating the safety of ships and marine structures on the basis of international standards and approving them on aspects of design such as strength, stability, and safety.
You can also find jobs in companies engaged in Research and development, educational institutes and the sales and marketing departments of marine engineering and construction engineering.
Money & Other Benefits
Because this is a specialised skill, starting salaries are comparatively higher in the range of Rs 15,000 - 20,000 a month for those with a Bachelor's degree and around Rs 22,000 - 30,000 for those with postgraduate degrees. Pay scales in government organisations are marginally lower in the range of Rs 8,000 - 16,000 a month. But then you have job security along with numerous other perks and privileges.
If you think that you are going to design a luxury ship like the Queen Elizabeth II or a super tanker capable of carrying millions of tonnes of crude oil then you are sadly mistaken. The economic slump has meant that companies no longer find it feasible to construct new mammoth ships. However this means that ships currently in service will need more overhauling and upgrading. Your challenge will therefore be to take existing structures and make them better.
With time, naval architects become specialists in one field or develop broad experience in several areas. Eventually you will grow up to senior executive positions.
Alternatively you can start off your own consultancy services providing clients with engineering solutions, technical guidance and project management for vessel constructions, repair and upgradation.
Production engineers are
responsible for the planning, organisation, co-ordination and control of
production in a company. It will be your job to ensure that your products are
made in the required quantities at the lowest possible cost.
You will decide the best possible to produce an item. It can be anything from crayons to cars. You will work out the best process to develop the product. You will decide what kinds of machinery will be required and oversee its installation. In certain cases you will also have to supervise the recruitment of skilled and unskilled workers to handle the production lines that you set up.
Once the entire production system has been set up, your job will move on improving the efficiency of the production process. You will be looking at the minutest aspect of the process and initiate changes if required. You will have to keep abreast of the latest technological advancements in the market and recommend the upgradation of m achinery and processes if it makes sound economic sense.
Safety is also one of your important concerns. You will be required to ensure that all safety standards for men and machinery are strictly adhered to.
You will work closely with personnel in the management arm of the company as well as the workers on the production lines to ensure that everything goes of smoothly. At the end of the day it will be you responsibility to ensure that the actual production meets the scheduled requirement. You will set the production target for a certain period in accordance with the factory management.
At the senior level, you will be responsible for helping junior engineers plan, execute, and meet the company's requirements in areas of safety, quality, productivity, and finance. You will be required to provide your technical expertise to enhance and expand the company's business.
· Strong technical and numerical abilities
· Good communication skills
· Team work and leadership qualities
· Analytical ability
· Organising ability
· Spatial reasoning
· Excellent logical reasoning skills
· Ability to grasp concepts quickly
In order to be a production
engineer you need to have a BE/ B.Tech or ME/ M.Tech degree in production
engineering. After the SSC exams you can do a three-year diploma course. After
this course you have two options. Join an engineering firm straightaway or
enroll for a three-year degree programme.
Instead of doing a diploma, you could study science all the way up to HSC and then enroll for a four-year degree course in production engineering.
If you wish to study further after graduation you could choose between to do a master in production engineering, like an ME (Master of Engineering), M.Tech (master of Engineering) or MS (Master of Science-if pursued in the US). All these courses need you to study for another two years. You can also do a Ph.D if you want to enter the field of teaching.
In the Production engineering course, you will learn subjects like design for manufacturing, quality manag ement techniques, use of machine tools and robotics, etc.
In this field, knowledge of software tools like Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is most essential.
Alternatively, you can also become a production engineer after completing your B.E in any stream and working in the production department of an industry for three to four years.
Almost any organisation in the industrial sector requires the services of production engineers. A majority of production engineers work in manufacturing industries. Other employment avenues exist in the construction and pharmaceutical sectors.
Engineering consultancy organisations like Larsen and Tubro and Tata Engineering services also employ production engineers.
Money & Other Benefits
As a trainee engineer with a Bachelor's degree you can expect to earn a salary of about Rs 8000-12000 per month. However your earnings will be much lower if you are just a diploma holder. Senior engineers earn as much as Rs 30,000 - 40,000 per month.
The increasing complexity of production processes has contributed to the demand for production engineers. In today's troubled times, companies are trying to cut costs and improve efficiency. That has also added to the demand for experienced production engineers. With enough years of experience you can even start off your own small scale manufacturing businesses.
For starters you will be concerned with sending and receiving data. This could be done using basic telephones, fax machines, mobile phones, over the radio or T.V as well as the Internet. You will make use of high-end technologies such as radar technology, microwave technology and even communication satellites.
Telecommunication engineering encompasses the field of hardware and the software. In the hardware field you will be responsible for the physical installation and servicing of equipment. It could be anything from laying telephone wire under a busy metropolitan road to putting up satellite dish in a remote corner of the country. You will also be responsible for ensuring that all this complex telecommunication equipment is operating at its optimum level. If there are any breakdowns, you will the one who will need to fix it and fix it real quick. After all nobody likes a dead phone or a disconnected Internet connection for hours on end!
In the field of software you could be sitting in a plush office, but your job will be just as hectic and challenging. You will be responsible for ensuring that all the communication devices are linked properly and that there is smooth data transmission. Looking after aspects of data transmission such as signal strength, data loss, etc. will be your responsibility. Since telecommunication apparatus are so complex, in the event of something going wrong, you will have to be quick in deciding where the fault lies and solving it.
Technology is growing at a rapid pace and there is enormous scope in the field of research and development. If you come from a hardware background, you will develop new communication devices like mobile phones with which one can surf the Internet. You could also develop transmission devices like more compact dish antennas. As a software person you will create programmes that will help new devices communicate or modify old software to suit new devices and technologies.
If you are keen to work as a
hardware enginner in the telecommunicatin industry, then physical fitness and
an adventurous outlook becomes essential. Your work may take you on hundred
feet tall towers with close proximity to electrical wires and circuits. At that
point of time you can't shy away from the situation. You also need to make sure
that you are not colour blind as communication wires and cables are colour
coded. You should be able to distinguish red from green or else people using
the telephone will have to hear from the mouthpiece and talk from the earphone!
A diploma in electronics and telecommunication engineering is the minimum qualification to enter this field. Of course, a bachelor's degree in the above streams will make your prospects better. You can also have a B.E in Computer Science or Electronics to work with telecom software companies.
Continuing education is important for telecommunications engineers, as you need to keep up with the rapid changes in technology that is taking place. Going in for a master's degree in Telecommunication /Electronics/ Electronics & Telecommunication/ Computer Science & Engineering in India or abroad will be time and money well spent.
At the advanced levels you could specialise in current and emerging technologies such as:
As a telecommunication engineer you will be employed in:
You can also work in the sales and marketing departments of telecommunication companies. Teaching at academic institutions remains another option open to you.
Money & Other Benefits
Starting salary is in the range of Rs 6,000-9,000 per month. Companies involved in software development pay between Rs 9,500-15,000 per month in the beginning. Salaries for diploma holders are in the range of Rs 3,500-6,000 per month.
Telecommunication engineers need to update their knowledge and skills from time to time. Most companies therefore have internal or external training programmes for their engineers. So you may even get to go to a reputed university abroad to specialise in a particular area at your company's cost.
Convergence is the name of the game today. Getting different equipments like the computer and mobile phone to communicate with each other is the main thrust of the telecommunication industry. Along with that is the emphasis on developing better forms of wireless communication systems.
India's liberalization programme has resulted in telecommunication giants like Ericksson to set up shop here. Increased competition amongst the players in providing basic telephony services, mobile services and Internet services has resulted in a substantial demand for telecommunications experts.
Although research opportunities in India are limited there is enormous scope abroad in working for telecommunication giants such as AT & T, BELL, Motorola, etc. and government agencies such as NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)